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Factbook of Jugland
« on: November 01, 2019, 11:24:47 AM »
Free Autonomous Territory of Jugland



Government Type: Devolved autonomy under an elected executive system
Population: 5,196,000
Capital City: Albrektberg
Demonym: Juglander
Ethnicity: Juglander 94%; Other Coft Aranye ethnicities 5%; Others 1%
Official languages: Csletian and Mktvartvelian
Religions: no official religion



Background

Jugland is an associated state within the Unitary State of Mktvartvelo. Originally founded by West Coft Aranye settlers, Jugland is a metropolitan area and region on the Gulf of Safraen.

Under the Agreement of Azavrelia, Jugland is a special administrative region within the Unitary State of Mktvartvelo. Jugland has its own constitution, adopted in 2008 and amended in 2019, and wide self-autonomy in many areas. Basic Laws passed in Mktvartvelo's parliament have constitutional status in both Mktvartvelo and Jugland, although the latter can be granted exception regarding a basic law, although that both sides agree - if not, any basic law becomes law in Jugland's territory. However, the Unitary State of Mktvartvelo acts on behalf of Jugland in foreign policy and defense issues, and Jugland has no armed forces.

Most notoriously, Jugland has a strict separation between church and state, and Mktvartvelo's religious and inheriance legislation do not apply in the territory of the Free Autonomous Territory of Jugland.

All Juglander residents were granted Mktvartvelian citizenship, and as such, there is no Juglander citizenship. However, Jugland's authorities have the right to issue its own identity cards, which are granted according Jugland's legislation, and it does not operate under Mktvartvelo's own citizenship legislation. For Juglander citizens born after 2010, however, Mktvartvelian citizeship legislation applies. Only Mktvartvelian citizens can vote in elections to the parliament, although Juglander authorities are granted the right to have their own electoral law for local and regional elections.








« Last Edit: October 22, 2021, 05:39:40 PM by paralipomena »
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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #1 on: November 01, 2019, 11:39:45 AM »

Factbook of Jugland

Government Type: Devolved autonomy under an elected executive system
Population: 5,196,000
Capital City: Albrektberg
Demonym: Juglander
Ethnicity: Juglander 94%; Other Coft Aranye ethnicities 5%; Others 1%
Official languages: Csletian and Mktvartvelian
Religions: no official religion


« Last Edit: October 22, 2021, 05:41:23 PM by paralipomena »
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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #2 on: November 03, 2019, 02:54:12 PM »
Administrative divisions



The name "Jugland" derives from "southern lands", as it was the name that settlers and sailors from the Azure Peninsula originally gave to the lands on the shore of the Gulf of Safraen. More than two thousands ago, Albrekt the Great arrived to the Gulf of Safraen from the west Coft Aranye, founding the first permanent settlement. The main town was latter renamed in his honour as Albrektberg.



Before the Agreement of Azavrelia was divided between the Albrektberg metropolitan region and six prefectures. In 2004, the administrative division was reformed and Jugland is currently divided in eighteen districts, each of which has its own local council. Until the Treaty of Shetankhmebumi, signed in 1951, the region of Nordansk-Hokubuchiiki was also part of Jugland, but it became part of the Unitary State of Mktvartvelo four years later.

Albrektberg is considered the capital city of Jugland, although it does not have such status officially. It is considered that Jugland is formed by four towns, of which Albrektberg is the largest one. Albrektberg comprises thirteen of Jugland's districts, and a majority of the population lives in Albrektberg metropolitan area. The other three towns are Midtenstadt, Nordheim and Sandberg.

Albrektberg metropolitan area, or Greater Albrektberg as it is sometimes called, lacks a metropolitan government for its administration, which is divided between Jugland's districts, which sometimes include area outside its metropolitan area, particularly suburban areas. The management of most of the services of the city are divided between the districts and the Governorate -Jugland's executive government-, complicating the operation of the city as a single entity, as the Governoratae Council is elected by voters of every Jugland's district, including from those towns outside Albrektberg. The highest authority in Albrektberg is considered to be the Governor of the Albrektberg Metropolotian Region, an unelected delegate appointed by the Governorate Council.

Each district, in Albrektberg and elsewhere, elects their own council, which elects a mayor. Besides heading the local government, every mayor is also a member of the Senate, the Upper House of the territory.



Districts of Jugland

DistrictOfficial nameRegionPopulation
1FukugenAlbrektberg metropolitan area102,000
2KeskusAlbrektberg metropolitan area357,000
3HunnundAlbrektberg metropolitan area      218,700
4KanninheimAlbrektberg metropolitan area316,200
5HiyokenAlbrektberg metropolitan area453,900
6AmvkharAlbrektberg metropolitan area112,200
7NishikaiganAlbrektberg metropolitan area219,300
8StromendalenAlbrektberg metropolitan area336,600
9FjellstadtAlbrektberg metropolitan area418,200
10MenzushigaiAlbrektberg metropolitan area290,700
11NankoAlbrektberg metropolitan area448,800
12MjoddeAlbrektberg metropolitan area280,500
13Sunaji-SandheimAlbrektberg-Midstemsdal289,900
14MidtenstadtHamarrland-Midstemsdal234,600
15HaugefjordSandberg metropolitan area382,500
16GjenborgSandberg metropolitan area188,700
17NgeingtaNordheim metropolitan area168,300
18KaeshigaiNordheim metropolitan area122,400


Largest urban agglomerations
  • Albrektberg - 3,650,733
  • Sandberg - 571,200
  • Midtenstadt - 364,088
  • Nordheim - 290,700



« Last Edit: October 30, 2021, 09:01:32 PM by paralipomena »
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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #3 on: November 03, 2019, 04:01:40 PM »
Politics of Jugland


Since...., Jugland is a special administrative region within the Unitary State of Mktvartvelo. The Free Autonomous Territory of Jugland has its own government and parliament. Mktvartvelo's government has not right to veto legislation passed by Jugland's parliament or government, although any law passed by Jugland's parliament may be reviewed by Mktvartvelo's Supreme Court may rule Juglander legislation unconstitutional and immediately suspend such legislation, without right to appeal by Juglander authorities.

The Free Autonomous Territory of Jugland has its own administrative divisions and electoral law, which differ from Mktvartvelo's. Many electoral and suffrage restrictions in Mktvartvelo's legislation do not exist in Jugland. Since 2010, despite some shortcomings, Jugland has consistently scored higher than the rest of Mktvartvelo in most international democratic index or rankings.

Unlike the Unitary State of Mktvartvelo, Jugland has not official or recognized state religion, and it has a stricter separation between state and church, with no restrictions on freedom of religion or speech.

Under Jugland's constitution, education is guaranted as a basic right, and there is no tuition fees for both state and private schools. The healthcare system, on the other hand, is organized under a government-run publicly funded universal healthcare system, which combines public and private healthcare providers.

The Free Autonomous Territory of Jugland has no armed forces, although it has its own law enforcement force, known as the State Guard. The Chairman of the State Guard is appointed by Jugland's Governorate, and he is under the authority of the Secretary for Civic Protection. However, the Chairman of the State Guard may be suspended or dismissed by Mktvartvelo's Ministry of Public Order and Security, if it considers that he has overreach on his functions or violate national legislation.




The State Governorate

The State Governorate, sometimes simply called the Governorate, is Jugland's government. It is composed by nine elected members -known as Secretaries-, and it hods the executive power over the Free Autonomous Territory of Jugland. Since 2010, Jugland's Governorate serves as a collective head of state. However, one of the Secretaries also serves as President of the Governorate, who carries the main function to represent the whole government in institutional meetings or events, or sign into law Governorate's decrees or legislation passed by the Legislative Assembly. Despite this, the President of the Governorate has no power above and beyond the other eight Secretaries. Usually, the most senior Secretary serves as President, while the Vice President of the Governorate is often the second or third most senior member of the government (as it has been established that the President and Vice President can not be from the same political party).

Besides their function as collective government, every Governorate's Secretary heads a Department, effectively operating as the head of a ministry. However, Secretaries are not only responsible for their own department, but also for the business of their colleagues' departments, as well as for the conduct of the government as a whole. Every decision of the government must have been approved by consensus of all the members of the Governorate.

The Governorate officially operates as both an executive and legislative power, having the power to send back bills passed by the Legislative Assembly with their own proposed amends, or even veto legislation passed by the Legislative Assembly (this, however, can be overruled if 2/3 of the Legislative Assembly votes for the original bill in second vote). However, these powers are rarely used as most of the members of the Governorate are directly elected or the largest political parties are usually represented in the Governorate. Usually, the most senior member of the Governorate


The Legislative Assembly

The Legislative Assembly is Jugland's unicameral parliament (although sharing some legislative powers with the State Governorate), which 101 members are elected for a 4-year term.

The members of the Legislative Assembly are officially known as "Member of the Parliament". If a MP from an individual constituency resigns or dies, a by-election is called (unless there are fewer than three months before the next election). If the seat of a MP from the party-based nationwide constituency is vacant, he is replaced by his or her substitute of the same political party for the rest of the term instead.


Elections

Jugland's Constitution establishes that electoral districts can not have more than 50,000 voters.  The electoral law operates under a mixed system, including individual constituencies and a statewide party list under a proportional system. There are fewer restrictions on elections and campaigning than in the rest of Mktvartvelo, including the existance of parliamentary groups in the Legislative Assembly.

Elections in Jugland operate in four levels: election to mayor and the local government in each of Jugland's 18 districts; direct election for 7 of the 9 Governorate's Secretaries; election for candidates to the Legislative Assembly in individual constituencies (in two rounds); and election for candidates to the Legislative Assembly in the statewide party lists.

Four of the seven directly elected Secretaries of the Governorate are elected in special territorial districts (in which controversially districts outside Albrektberkg are heavily overrepresented, as while Albrektberg metropolitan area has more than 60% of Jugland's population, they only elect one of those other Secretaries). The other three Secretaries are elected by ethnic-based constituencies for the three largest ethnic groups in the country. The other members of the Governorate are indirectly elected by the Legislative Assembly.





« Last Edit: October 30, 2021, 09:17:13 PM by paralipomena »
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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #4 on: May 23, 2021, 06:33:17 PM »
Demographics of Jugland


As consequence of successive waves of migration, military invasions, colonial settlements, and changes in sovereignty have turned Jugland into a multi-ethnic and multi-religious society. The largest ethnic group are the Csletians, who are considered an interethnic group originated by the blend of natives from the Gulf of Safraen and northwestern settlers. Mktvartvelians and Abydonians also established in Jugland through history and, particularly after 15th century, a large number of Ardian settlers as well. The 1949 agreement, in which the principle of shared sovereignty over Jugland for the next fifty years was established, as well as the peaceful annexation by the Unitary State of Mtkvartvelo of the Prefecture of Kitaken (nowadays part of the province of Chrdiloetilisi-Nordansk), influenced a reduction of ethnic East Ardians and an increase of immigration for Mktvartvelo. In recent decades, there was also an increasing immigration from Mid-Aranye countries.


Main ethnic groups in Jugland

Ethnic groupPopulation
Csletians2,040,000   
Yamato1,530,000
Mktvartvelians        1,020,000
Abydonians234,855
Vanorians106,590
Ethnic Arabs99,450
Ethnic Clysperi31,365
Achkaerinese10,583
Ethnic Safraen1,658
Others25,000




Religion in Jugland

The oldest Simartlean temple in Jugland is the Temple of Dideba Gamarjvebistvis, which was built in the 5th century, following an invasion by Mktvartvelian forces. Christianity in Jugland has been attested since the 6th century. However, the Catholic Church declined to a minority status already in the early 17th century. Ethnicity and religion are often strongly associated. For example, most ethnic Cslatians are followers of the People's Church of Jugland, a Christian denomination established in the 16th century.

ReligionEstimated number of believers (2020)
Teidō faith 1,386,828
People's Church of Jugland         1,271,142
Order of Simartlea773,989
Islam271,750
Catholic Church152,980
Non-believers / Unknown~ 836,665
Jewish63,954
Others61,308

There is no official religion in Jugland, and freedom of religion is protected under Jugland's constitution.


« Last Edit: October 30, 2021, 11:19:46 PM by paralipomena »
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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #5 on: May 31, 2021, 07:22:04 PM »
Places in Jugland



TBC


« Last Edit: October 31, 2021, 12:05:36 AM by paralipomena »
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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #6 on: June 01, 2021, 01:23:54 PM »
Economy of Jugland



TBC


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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #7 on: June 02, 2021, 06:53:21 PM »
Media in Jugland




Television - Radio - Newspapers

NameFrequencyCategoryCirculationDescription/NotesLanguageOwner
NameFrequencyCategoryCirculationDescription/NotesLanguageOwner
Juglander Review   
-
Online only since 2015   
-
Juglander Review was established in Amvkhar in 1899. It was relaunched as an international newspaper in 1979   Csletian / English   Frihet Publishing House Ltd.   

[WIP]







TBC


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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #8 on: June 04, 2021, 10:21:29 PM »
Culture: Sports in Jugland



Various sporting events and disciplines are popular in Jugland. These include soccer, cycling, tennis, basketball, and, to a lesser degree, handball, futsal, lacrosse, hockey, and badminton. Soccer is the most popular sport in terms of active membership. It is, along basketball, one of the most practiced sports in the school system.

In an international level, Jugland has had, in most sport events, their own national team never at least since 1949. As a consequence, most Jugland sportpeople do not participate in the Mktvartvelo's national teams. However, Juglander sportpeople participate in many sports events in Mktvartvelo, and vice versa, and both Juglander and Mktvartvelo domestic competitions have a considerable amount of players from both territories.

Soccer, basketball, netsball, Juglander baseball, handball, and futsal all have competitive professional leagues. Rugby is not a popular sport in Jugland, although it has experienced a surge in interest as consequence of Jugland participation for first time in the Rugby World Cup in 2021.



Team sports

The soccer professional system was professionalized in the 1960s. The oldest football tournament is the Juglander Cup, consisting in a knockout tournament of currently 16 teams, which is usually held from December to May. The Elite Football League, the men's professional soccer league, was established in 1964, consisting in 8 clubs. It starts on November and ends in June.

The First Division, women's soccer top division, was established in 1999. The Women's Superleague is played between the top 6 clubs of the First Division. The current champion of the Women's Superleague is Albrektberg FD.

The National Basketball League, also known BLJD, is played by 10 clubs, and which winner is decided through a playoff system. The Basketball SuperCup is played in half-season by the top eight teams in the National Baskelball League. The current champion of the Basketball SuperCup is Nordheim who defeated Anlebaek in the final match held on May 2021.

The Women's Basketball League (KLB) is played by 8 clubs, with the same format than men's basketball. The Women's Basketball Cup, or KLB Cup, is played in half season by the top four clubs in the regular season. The current champion is Gjengfasthet Albrektberg.

The professional men's league in handball and futsal consist currently in 8 clubs, with the women's top league of those sports currently consisting in 5 clubs.

Both men's and women's professional in Juglander baseball consist in 8 clubs. Unlike other team sports in Jugland, Juglander baseball is barely semi-professional, with clubs based in the district that they represent. Despite this, baseball have a low but faithful following in Jugland.



Other sport events

Before 2014, there were several tennis tournament, both national and continental, in Jugland. The oldest tennis tournament in Jugland is the Juglander Open, a national tourmanent held annually in which participate the men's and women's tennis players from Jugland.

On June 2021, it was held from first time the Kvinne Cup, an international tennis tournament, which was won by Tytorian Michelle Kingman.


There are several cycling events, including the Juglander National Championships, in which are decided the annual national champions in men's and women's cycling. The winners of the race will wear in their maillot the colours of the Juglander flag in any other cycling events they participate for the rest of the season.

The most important cycling race is the Tour of Jugland which was held uninterruptedly since 1945. The riders with most wins, four, are Heimarr Henriksen (1973, 1974, 1977, and 1978) and Gottwyn Vinter (1982, 1985, 1986, 1987).

In women's cycling, the Juglander Ladies Tour, usually held in Emrta, was held from 1991 to 2013. Thora Bjerknes had the race record with three wins in 2009, 2011, and 2013.

There are a large number of cycling national, continental, and international one-day races. Between them, the most important ones are the Midtenstadt Grand Prix (in men's cycling) and the Albrektberg-Mjodde-Albrektberg Classic (in women's cycling).





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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #9 on: June 06, 2021, 11:24:19 PM »
History: Important People of Jugland (2)





Giselmund Albrekt Vildalen av Hemarr (1720-1788)
He was writer, politician and philosopher.  In 1754, he moved to Albrektberg, where he was appointed to several state administration positions. During those years, he wrote extensively, both in official report and published works on political and economic issues, with a monarchist but modernizing view. In 1776, he joined the government as Minister of Justice, in which he attempted to reduce the role of the religious courts, and started several draft for new laws. However, most of those projects were not inconclusive. He, however, was able to gain Queen Aldegunda support to pass a law which, between other things, would abolish death penalty against the clergy for violation of their religious vows. He was dismissed in 1778. He returned to Hernstadt, his home town, where he started his project of writing a dictionary of Csletian language. After the dead of Aldegunda I in 1780, he felt out of favour and he would be arrested in 1782, expending the next five years in prison. When he was released, he was already seriously ill, and he would die a few years later.

Besides his political writings, Vildalen wrote extensively on natural philosophy and psychology. He considered that all knowledge comes from the senses and there are no innate ideas, which led to many to consider him a pioneer on materialism thinking in Jugland, despite he denied in his correspondence to be an atheist.




Gaufryda Odilia Vildalen av Hemarr (1726-1781)
Gaufryda, also known as "Fryda Vildalen", was a noblewoman and Juglander poet, Giselmund Vildalen's only sister. She married to Baron av Norebo, who was a personal friend of his brother. In 1777, the couple moved to Albrektberg, where they joined Giselmund. She became a prominent member of Queen Aldegunda's court. However, her husband would died in 1779, and she would move back to her late husband's hometown.

Her literary work would only be published posthumously, but they would be rediscovered in late 19th century. As it was typical at the time, her poetry was mostly moralizing although they have also social criticism, particularly about the role of women and hypocrisy. A collection of the collected letters between her and his brother was published in the early 20th century, becoming very popular in academic circles, in their letters, they talked about daily and family issues, but also discussed about poetry or mythology, two topics that highly interested to Gaufryda. She died in 1781, after a cholera epidemy affected the province where she lived her last years.

She was suspected to play an important role in the reform of the clergy statute enacted by her brother. However, she described priestesses in one of her poem as "slaves of fate", and she allegedly opposed that her second daughter, as it was a tradition in noble families at the time, were sent to a religious school to be ordered priestess. These aspects of her biography, as well as being reclaimed by feminists and republicans as an ideological foremother, made her controversial in early 20th century. However, since the 1990s, many schools, libraries and streets were renamed with her name.




Hramnberaht Wulfgang Sollied av Gjortzen (1739-1824), known as Hramnberaht Gjortzen
He was a philosopher and mathematician. His ideas, including support for a liberal economy, public instruction, and constitutional government made him a highly influencial author in Juglander liberalism.
Before 1790, his writings mostly focused on science, writing particularly on integral calculus. He had joined the Royal Academy of Sciences in 1782. The next year, he was requested to write a treaty on astronomy, which was funded by the state.

In 1790, he published a treaty on pedagogy, in which he defended the abolition of physical punishments. In the next years, he wrote several philosophical and political treaties, in which he started to expose his political views. After being identified as the author in a treaty published under a pseudonym, in which he criticized the absolute monarchy and defended parliamentary elections, he was expelled from the Royal Academy of Sciences. He was briefly imprisoned in 1796, and he was definitely sent to exile in 1799. He would not be allowed to return to Jugland until 1821. His works would be influential in the founding of the Liberal Party, several decades after his death.




Cynebaldina Bertha Walhafryda Hagen-Ekeberg av Tronmark (1758-1822), also known as Duchess of Tronmark
She was the only daughter of Gautberaht Hagen-Ekeberg, 6th Duke of Tronmark, who served as Chancellor of the Treasury in the reign of Wulfgang I. In 1777, she was married to Frederick Oldenburg, a Danmark national, who was at the time in a diplomatic visit to Jugland. She was 19, and her husband was 46.

The couple moved to Albion, where the Duchess would play an active role in the Copenhagen court. They had six children, but four of them died in infancy. It is believed that her son Ludvig Frederick, born in 1784, was the child of the Duchess and Hugleikrarr Kolseth, who was serving as Juglander ambassador in Danmark at the time. In Albion, she wrote "Letters to Jugland" (1782), a satirical work in which she depicted events of her own biography and Juglander history but as if she was actually describing the Albion nation. The book was misunderstood but she exposed in it some of her liberal ideas. Her husband died in 1797. She got bored about life in Danmark and returned to Jugland in 1799. She became Duchess of Tronmark after the death of his father, and she hosted a salon in Albrektberg, in which both politicians and writers often attended.

In 1801, she published under a male pseudonym a provocative novel "Bertha", in which she described a young priestess being pursued romantically by all kind of men from all social stratums of Juglander society. The novel was automatically banned by the authorities. She started to write articles under her name in a moderate newspaper, something unusual for a women in the time, mostly on literary criticism. In 1804, she published "An Outline of Juglander literature". It would be, however, her social activities which would cause her demise, as authorities started to suspect that her salon had become a source of plotting against Hughardt Ballangrud's government and she was forced to exile from Jugland. Between 1810 to 1814, already in her 50s, she visited several countries in both Alba Karinya and East Ardia. In 1815, she returned to Jugland, although she was not allowed to return to Albrektberg. In 1818 she published "On Life on Jugland", an essay which dealed with philosophical questions and description of social institutions, and a last novel, about the life of a recently married woman.

After Queen Aldegunda I, Duchess of Tronmark is considered one of the most influential women of the time. She is also considered a precursor of feminism in Jugland, although she often held contradictory views about the role of women in society. She exchanged letters with many important men, both in Jugland and abroad, including Hramnberaht Gjortzen.






Ekkehardt Lamprecht Rekdal (1764-1830)
Rekdal was born in a noble family of rather modest means from eastern Jugland. His father was a retired Lieutenant in the Royal Armed Forces. He was sent to study to Sandberg, where he studied Law, Theology, and Philosophy. He moved to Albrektberg in 1791, he moved to Albrektberg, joining the State University of Albrektberg. There, he made the acquaintance of Hramnberaht Gjortzen. He married Grimhildra Blomkvist, the daughter of a high-ranking military officer, in 1792, whom he would have seven children. During that time, he occupied himself with translating essays by foreign writers into Juglander language. He exposed some liberal ideas in his youth. However, he increasingly moved to the right in the next decades.

He is mostly remembered for his work "History of Jugland", a 10-volume national history. Many considered him as the founder of modern historiography in Jugland. In later decades, however, his political writings became more influential, considered as one of the main founders of political conservatism in Jugland. He openly supported the absolute monarchy, and his "History of Jugland" is considered by many of an epic defense of the founding of Kingdom of Jugland. In later writings, he attacked liberal authors as Gjortzen and Duchess of Tronmark, famously calling the latter to "stick to knitting" in a critical review. In 1822, he became an official advisor to King Leobwyn IV, and he was appointed to the royal parliament. He served briefly in the government under Prime Minister Fulberaht Storholt.











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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #10 on: June 10, 2021, 07:26:22 PM »
History: Important People of Jugland (3)





Hughardt Njall Ballangrud (1770-1828)
Hughardt Ballangrud was a politician and diplomat. He served as Chancellor of the Treasury (1807-1812) and Prime Minister (1812-1820 and 1822-1826). He was instrumental in the creation of the Council of Ministers in 1811, the first national government in the Kingdom of Jugland, and the introduction of several administrative reforms aimed to modernize the state. The same year, it was also established for first time a permanent parliament, although both the government and the monarch retained a veto power over the decisions passed by the parliament.

Ballangrud also founded the Conservative Party in 1817, aimed to break the tradition of the powerful political clans. Although the Conservative Party would remain the largest political party of the parliament for the rest of the century, the influence of the clans would effectively decline only in the 1840s. Although he is remembered a stateman who helped to build a modern government in Jugland, he was strongly opposed to democracy and he opposed to further expansion of the political franchise, restricting suffrage to propertied men, who gained him the hatred of left-leaning liberals and progressive forces.




Glaedwyn Ronningen (1804-1881)
Glaedwyn Ronninger was a diplomat and politician. His grandfather was a high-ranking military officer in the Juglander army. He moved to Albrektberg in 1824, where he started a brief career as journalist and wrote for several literary magazines as well. He started a career of diplomat in 1833, serving as ambassador in East Moreland and Eskdale. He returned to Jugland in 1840, and in 1842 he was elected to the parliament in the northwestern district of Nordheim. He served briefly as Minister of Education in Theudbald Pettersen's government from 1844 to 1845, but he was forced to resign as his reforms aimed to expand public schools over religious ones did not find the support of the monarch. He would remain a member of the parliament until his death, in 1881.

In 1848, he founded -along with another three members of the parliament-, the Liberal Party, aimed to strengthen the powers of the parliament over the government, consolidate the constitutional monarchy in Jugland, and as well as expanding the male suffrage at least to the middle classes. On economy, Ronningen defended free trade over protectionist policies. He would remain leader of the Liberal Party until 1872.

He was appointed Prime Minister in 1868, forming the first Liberal Party government in Jugland. However, the government lacked enough support in the parliament, and failed to pass important reforms. He was dismissed by King Mannwald III, being replaced by his arch-rival Reinhardt Ballangrud. However, as leader of the opposition he played an important role to achieve the 1864 reform, which expanded suffrage to nearby half of the male population.

Ronningen married twice and he had eight children. His son Albrekt Herewardt served as Minister of Public Works in Braekhus second government (1884-1886), while his great-grandson Grimwald served as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1906 to 1916.





Reinhardt Walhafryd Ballangrud av Bakkerod (1811-1881)
Reinhardt Ballangrud was a politician and diplomat. He was the second Duke of Bakkerod. He served as Prime Minister three times (1846-1855, 1856-1864, and 1871-1876). He was the second son of Hughardt Njall Ballangrud. Reinhardt Ballangrud was elected to the parliament in 1840 at the age of only 29 years old, and following the retirement of Hermann Snorr Hakonsen, he became the leader of the Conservative Party in 1844. He was appointed Prime Minister by King Mannwald III. During his first government, the Charter of Amvkhar was sanctioned, and the Principality of Emrta was established.

In his second government, he consolidated the power of the Conservative Party, effectively ended the influence of the political clans, which had dominated Jugland’s politics since the 18th-century, and which led him to create the Conservative Party.

After the death of Mannwald III in 1875, he failed to gain the confidence of the new monarch, Hramnberaht II, and he would be dismissed as Prime Minister in late 1876. Although he remained as leader of the Conservative Party, his influence declined after 1878, and he did not run for reelection in 1881, retiring from politics. He would die only a few months later, in his native home.

Although he headed the government more years than his father, he struggled to keep the Conservative Party united amid many internal factions. In order to mantain in power, particularly in his second and third governments, he was forced to offer many concessions to both the conservative and moderate factions of the parliament, including the 1875 electoral reform.




Fulberaht Eysteinn Sognnaes (1812-1878)
He was a writer, politician and political thinker. Sognnaes was born in the nobility, but he soon showed a passion for liberal and progressive ideas. He was elected to the parliament in 1849, and joined the Liberal Party. However, he soon became disillusioned about the compromises by Ronningen and the other Liberal Party members. He was one of the founders of the Democratic Party in 1854, although he failed to be reelected to the parliament in 1860. In 1861, he moved back to this native town in northeastern Jugland. There, he continued publishing books, mostly on history, political theory, as well as his memoirs, published posthumously in 1880.

His political ideas evolved from liberalism in his youth to increasingly left-leaning, toward radical democracy and, in his last years, adopting a form of socialism. His parliamentary experienced caused him to dislike liberalism and middle-class values, and he sought authenticity among the peasants, something he was close to achieve in his rural retirement in his last years.

In his final writings, he promoted both socialism and individualism, supported a form of agrarian socialism, in which capitalism would be replaced by small-scale communal living with the protection of individual liberty and a socialist government mostly in charge to protect order and promote cooperatives. He, however, rejected revolutionary socialism.

After his death, there was a great interest in his ideas, and his books were very popular in democratic circles and between the workers movement. However, in the 20th century, his influence declined, as his ideas started to be seen as archaic and obsolete by the largest left-wing and socialist political parties and authors. Although in recent decades there was a growing interests in his writings, mostly in academic circles.

Adalwynda Naess-Schjelderup, a current Juglander politicial and member of the National Assembly, is a distant descendant of Sognnaes.






Lamprecht Braekhus (1809-1898)
Braekhus was a writer and politician, leader of the Liberal Party from 1872 to 1894. He was Prime Minister twice, from 1876 to 1880 and from 1884 to 1886. He also served as minister from 1868 to 1871, during Ronningen's Liberal government.

Braekhus joined the army but retired in 1842, after he suffered a wound that caused him to lose his left arm. During the next years, he travelled through Coft Aranye, Alba Karinya, and Northern Ardia, writing several travel books, which became relatively popular at the time in Jugland. He realized about the growing gap between Jugland and many countries, and became a determined reformer, aimed to the modernization of the country. Although he had admired Rekdal's writings in his youth, he moved to the left in his 30s, although he was not a radical. Braekhus gained the confidence of Ronningen, after the former joined the parliament in 1847. Although he was not one of the founders of the Liberal Party, he officially became a member in 1859. He served in Ronningen's administration (1868 and 1871) and replaced Ronningen as leader of the Liberal Party in 1872.

Unlike Ronninger, Braekhus was not shy to publicize his own ideas. In the 1850s and 1860s, he published several books -most of them, collection of essays that he published in liberal and moderate newspapers, exposing his ideas. He tried to convince the public, and in particular the cultural and economic elite, of the need of important reforms for the development of the monarchy and the advancement of the science required for such task. He was not shy in his defense of a constitutional government for Jugland. He, however decried revolution and always worked in the framework of the Juglander monarchy.

Although his governments were able to pass more reforms than the first Liberal government, he faced increasingly social turmoil and political division, particularly during his second government (1884-1886). Although the several electoral reforms increased the influence of the Liberal Party in the parliament, it also mobilized more radical groups which demanded democracy and political rights. Already in his 70s, Braekhus was seen as part of the political establishment, and his younger left-leaning political rivals had not the patience that the Liberals demanded. His government's ban of public political meetings in 1886, led to violent crash between the militarized police and supporters of the Menneskarr Movement, which defended democratic and republican ideas, resulted in more than fifty casualties in Albrektberg. Two weeks after, he was forced to resign. He continued as leader of the Liberal Party until 1894.




Hildebrandt Wyne Holman (1812-1875)
Hildebrandt W. Holman was a philosopher and political thinker. He was born in Morkhaven, a small town nearby Amvkhar. His grandfather and his father were religious magistrates. He graduated in Law in Amvkhar and moved to Albrektberg in 1836, where he continued his studies in Philosophy and Natural Science. In Albrektberg, he joined republican circles. However, in 1841 he moved back to Amvkhar, where he married Albyna Hareide. In 1847, he started to write for a local liberal newspaper. In 1849, he was offered to be correspondent for the newspaper -he initially wrote literary reviews-, and lived abroad until 1854.

When he returned to Jugland, he felt disappointed about the political climate and the lack of initiatives of both the Liberal Party and the democratic groups. He was fired from the newspaper after he wrote an article criticizing the monarchy. By that time, Holman was not only a republican but, influenced by foreign authors, also a socialist. He met Sognnaes in 1856, although Holman was rather disappointed about the meeting (Sognnaes did not mention Holman in his memoirs, although he negatively reviewed a book pubished by Holman a few years later). Unlike Sognnaes, Holmas justified revolutionary action to achieve socialism. Holman kept contact with members of the Democratic Party, although he was never a member.

Holman considered history a product of the struggle of races, nation, and classes. He was familiarized with Marxist literature and he was sympathetic toward communism but considered that same factors would operated under socialism. He was forced to exile in 1869, after one of his books was banned by the authorities and a legal process against him was initiated for "promoting immorality" and "corrupting the mind of the youth". He would never return to Jugland, and he would die in 1875.






« Last Edit: June 10, 2021, 09:03:37 PM by paralipomena »
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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #11 on: June 11, 2021, 03:25:52 PM »
History: Important People of Jugland (4)




Hrodgarr Ortwyn Northug (1822-1898)
Hrodgarr Northug was a writer and theologian. He graduated on Natural Sciences and Theology in Nordheim. He moved to Albrektberg where he continued his religious studies and in 1859, he would become Klok or religious magistrate. In the 1860s and 1870s, he achieved notoriety as a polemicist, for his articles written in his brother's newspaper. He became a close advisor of Prime Minister Hughardt Grimseth in 1880 and joined Baldwyn Solberg-Hakomsen's government in 1881-1883, where he tried to revert many reforms of the previous Liberal governments.

In 1884, he joined the Royal Juglander Academy Sciences. He continued concerned about political affairs, however, and he continued to write in conservative newspapers about political issues. His most famous work was "Elements of Theology", in which he denounced both secularism and atheism. He was a monarchist, although he became disillusioned about the political future of Jugland in his last years. He published "Thoughts on the Past, the Present, and the Future" (1894), his last works, which was later considered prophetic in conservative circles in early 20th century, in which he denounced democracy, liberalism, and socialism, and called to roll back to an absolute monarchy as form of government. He ended convinced that constitutional government inevitably leads to a socialist state. Controversially, however, he also proposed to restore elective monarchy.




Grimwald Hagen (1828-1889)
Grimwald Hagen was a journalist, writer, and politician. His family moved to Emrta in 1844. He graduated in Natural Sciences and Philosophy in the Royal College of Amvkhar. However, he was not interested in academic life. Instead, he started a career as journalist, writing for several liberal newspapers. He also published poems in literary reviews.

In 1859, he joined the Democratic Party. He was heavily influenced by Fulberaht Eysteinn Sognnaes, promoting agrarian collectivism and radical liberalism. He was elected to the parliament in 1864, being reelected in 1865, 1868, 1871, 1875. He was the leader of the Democratic Party from 1866 to 1878. Although he was a virulent polemicist, as Sognnaes, he also opposed the idea of a violent revolution.

Although he continued to publish books and articles on political theory and history, his influence in the Democratic Party declined in his last years, particularly after the creatio nof the Federation of Communist Workers, the first Marxist political party in Jugland, in 1884, which was joined by some of the most radical members of the Democratic Party, and the creation of the Socialist Party one year after his death. In the decade after his death, the Democratic Party would move toward a more liberal-progressive orientation.

During the short-lived Republic of Jugland, he was venerated as a forefather of the first republican government in modern Jugland, and many statues were built in his memory. However, most of them did not survive after the monarchy was restored in 1906. In his lifetime, Hagen gained respect, even by some of his enemies, for his oratory skills and the vivid style of his historical and political books. However, his popularity declined in the following decades, as his historical writings started to be seen as political pamphlets, while his political ideas were seen as either unpractical or obsolete.




Waramund Gerhnod Bjork (1832-1918)
Waramund Bjork was born in southwestern Jugland. He came from a family of middle-class landowners. His father was a leading Juglander literary critic and historian. In his youth, he was heavily influenced by his uncle Ekkehardt Othmarr, who was a member of the Liberal Party and served as minister from 1868 to 1871. He moved to Albrektberg in 1851, where he enrolled in the Royal College of Albrektberg, where he studied Law and accounting. Unwilling to continue with the family business back home, he moved to Sandberg in 1856, where he started to work in the public administration.

Meanwhile, he started to publish articles on Juglander history and social sciences. In Sandberg, he started to gain reputation as a lecturer in public conferences, where he often discussed economic ideas. He was a sympathizer of the Liberal Party, supporting a constitutional monarchy as ideal form of government. However, he disliked the free-trade theories defended by the leaders of the Liberal Party. Bjork promoted a protectionist economic policy as the only way to develop Jugland and build a prosperous national industry.

He moved to Albrektberg in 1873. He was professor of Administration and Political Ideas in the Royal College of Albrektberg from 1874 to 1877. In 1879, he joined the Ministry of Finance. He was promoted as ministerial under-secretary in 1886. In 1898, he served for six months as Minister of Administration and Public Works in Fredenand Kjelling's government, which included both members of the Conservative and Liberal parties.

During his time in Albrektberg, Bjork was briefly interested in socialist literature. However, he ended rejecting socialism as he considered that it was not a very practical political ideology. Bjork was a nationalist, promoting both economic protectionism and national self-interest. He felt that economic theories were too abstract, as they failed to consider that it was the nation and the family the base of an economy, not the individual or the humanity as a whole.

Bjork was not involved politically in the end of the monarchy and the establishment of a republican government in 1901. After his time as minister, he had returned to Sandberg. During that time, he seemed to be mostly concerning in researching in his book about the economic history of Jugland, which would eventually published in 1917. He did not support any political party at the time.

However, in 1905 he returned to Albrektberg, where he served as Minister of Finance for sixteen months. He attempted to estabilize the economy, but he failed to do so as he struggled to deal with the increasing political tensions, a growing wave of strikes, as well as the effects of the radical agrarian reform enforced by the previous republican government. In 1906 he moved to Sandberg. Two months later, the Republic of Jugland would collapse following a coup d'etat. Bjork was arrested in 1907 but he would be released two months later.




Gautberaht Hermann Lillefjell (1848-1921)
Gautberaht Lillefjell was a writer and social reformer. He was born in a wealthy family. He moved abroad in 1868 where he enrolled in several universities. He returned to Jugland in 1874, where he did a doctorate in law. He is considered one of the founders of sociology in Jugland, publishing many scientific articles and books. He moved to Amvkhar in 1879. He was professor of Social Science in the Royal College of Amvkhar from 1881 to 1894.

During the monarchy, Lillefjell was a sympathizer of the Liberal Party, although he was never involved politically. He funded and created several schools in both Emrta and his native town. He served as Minister of Education in Godehardt Kraggerud's government in 1895-1896. During the Republic of Jugland, he would be elected to the national parliament in 1902, as the candidate of a moderate party. He joined the government as Minister of Trade 1903, although he was only two months in office, as the government collapsed and it was replaced by a more radical republican government.

He was not active politically in the last years of the republic and the first year of the monarchy, although he was appointed Minister of Education in 1914, being the only person to have served as ministers in the reign of Godric IV, the Republic of Jugland and the reign of Theudbald again. He left the government in 1917, and he returned to Amvkhar, where he would die.




Sigeweard Lovoll (1852-1914)
Sigeweard Lovoll was a lawyer, politician, and socialist activist, known for being the founder of the Socialist Party.

Lovoll studied in the universities of Kaninheim and Sandberg. From 1876 and 1881, he worked as a lawyer for a law firm in Hunnund, western Jugland. He moved to Albrektberg, where he started his political career. He was elected to the parliament in 1884 as a candidate of the Democratic Party, although he was not reelected. His opposition with the leadership of the Democratic Party would increase until 1887, when Lovell and several of his supporters would be expelled from the Democratic Party.

In 1890, he founded the Socialist Party, which was joined by a large number of Democratic Party members. The Socialist Party, however, although it had an increasing growth of members in the next decade, it failed to be politically relevant, and it had only one member in the parliament when it was dissolved in 1900. He was a member of the parliament during the Republic of Jugland. After the fall of the republic, he would be arrested and sentenced to ten years of imprisonment. He was, however, released in 1912. He continued as leader of the Socialist Party until 1914, although his leadership had a mostly honorary role since 1908.

During his lifetime, particularly from 1890 to his death, Lovoll was the most famous and influencial socialist author in Jugland. He published many books and articles on socialist theory as well as political pamphlets. However, more scholars consider him as a popularizer of the ideas of others rather than an innovator. He supported the idea of a peaceful and bloodless revolution, although the Socialist Party was rather surprised with the end of the monarchy in 1901, and they had a rather limited role during the Republic of Jugland (1901-1906). In 1904, the Socialist Party obtained 24 seats, their best result, and they never joined the government during the republic.

Unlike Marxist authors, Lovell rejected the idea that socialism would imply the eventual abolition of the state, and considered the state as an independent political entity, a necessary instrument for the achievement and protection of a socialist classless society.

The Socialist Party would be banned in 1906, and it remained an underground organization until 1931, when it was allowed to register as a legal political party again. However, the membership of the Socialist Party had declined in the 1920s, and Lovell's ideas and books had a much more limited influence after his death.




Adelmarr Hughardt Ostensen (1864-1914)
Adelmarr Ostensen was a historian and politician, who played an important role in the last years of the monarchy and the republican period.

He studied in the State University of Albrektberg, where he graduated in law. In 1891, at the age of 27, he published his first book on Medieval Jugland. He was elected to the parliament in 1895 as a candidate of the Liberal Party. Unlike other politicians from the Liberal Party, he did not oppose the abolition of the monarchy in 1901 (although he had not publically supported republican ideas in the past either). He served as Minister of Justice in the first republican government. In the 1901 legislative election, he was elected to the parliament as an independent candidate. He joined the Democratic Party in 1902, and he served as Minister of War in 1904-1905 in the so-called radical republican government. After that, he left the Democratic Party and created his own political party, the Republican Liberal Party. Although the Republican Liberal Party only obtained 20 seats, he was appointed President of the national government in late 1905, although his government only lasted three months.

The 1906 coup d'etat that ended the Republic of Jugland surprised him in Sandberg. He immediately fled the country. He was allowed to return to Jugland in 1912. He would not be involved in politics again and he started to write his memoirs, but death surprised him in early 1914.

During the Republic of Jugland, Ostensen was considered a moderate, and he was strongly opposed socialism, although he was a pragmatist and negotiated with radical republican leaders when he needed to achieve his political objectives, which caused him to be extensively despised by conservative and right-wing sectors. Historians, as well as the public in general, are divided between those who consider him a stateman and those who consider him mostly an opportunist.





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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #12 on: June 20, 2021, 03:07:16 PM »
History: Important People of Jugland (5)





Erhardt Ragnvaldr Tvedt (1865-1923)
Erhardt Tvedt was a Juglander politician, the last President of the Republic of Jugland.

Although he had been a member of the Conservative Party before the 1901 republican revolution, serving as representative in Hunnund town council, Tvedt showed a moderate support to the new regime and he was elected to the parliament in 1902, as candidate of a center-right republican party. He served as Minister of Finance for six months in 1903. He was elected as candidate of the Republican Liberal Party in 1904, although his relation with the party leadership soon soured after the election, and he was rather considered an independent MP than part of the Republican Liberal parliamentary group. He served as Minister of Justice in 1905.

In 1906, Tvedt was elected President of the Republic, as part of a coalition that included center-right and moderate political parties. He resigned as president after a coup d’etat by a group of military forces. His resignation, prompted a quick collapse of the republican regime and paved the way toward the restoration of the monarchy.

During the time, many republican and left-leaning leaders believed that he knew in advance about the preparations of a coup d’etat against the republic. However, recent historical research, although it is clear that the republican government was aware of possible conspirations by military officers, Tvedt was not part in the conspiration, and his decision to resign was rather motivated by his wish to avoid a bloodbath or even a possible civil war in the country.

He was arrested and served two years in jail, being released in 1909. In the next years, he did not participate in politics, rather publishing several novels and plays, often inspired in historical events. He launched “Konstitusjonisten”, a center-right and democratic newspaper, in which he was directly involved until his death, in 1923. The newspaper would disappear in 1928.




Hugleikrarr Godric Vinjen (1871-1931)

Hugleikrarr Vinjen was a journalist and politician. He was President of the Republic of Jugland from 1904 to 1905.

After he graduated in the university, he started a career as journalist in the 1890s, writing for several liberal newspapers. He was not politically at the time, as he wrote mostly about cultural events and literary reviews. However, after the monarchy was proclaimed, he joined a democratic newspaper and his articles became more political. He was convinced by (Wigburg Bjorneboe) to run in the 1902 election as an independent with the support of the Democratic Party.

From 1902 to 1904 he joined several governments, serving as Minister of Education, Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Minister of Trade. He was elected in the 1904 election as a candidate of the National Progressive Party, a small center-left political party. He was elected the same year as President of the Republic of Jugland, in a radical republican coalition government which included ministers from the Democratic Party and left-leaning social reformers. His government introduced many reforms, included an agrarian reform and several laws advancing secularism, as well as some welfare policies. The government, however, collapsed in 1905 and it was replaced by a government dominated by center-right parties.

He was arrested after the coup d’etat that brought the republic to an end and he was sentenced 20 years to jail. He was released in 1924. After his release, he would publish several books and political pamphlets, although he was not a member of any political party and he did not run to office again.




Othmarr Fulberaht Hoel-Gimsen (1858-1949)
Othmarr Hoel-Gimsen was a Navy officer and politician, he had an instrumental role in both the end of the monarchy in 1901 and the end of the Republic of Jugland in 1906.

Although he was not part of the conspiracy that brought the end of the Kingdom of Jugland and the proclamation of the republic in 1901, he declared loyalty to the Albrektberg authorities following the abdication of Godric IV, which effectively ended the opposition inside the military to the new regime.

During the republic, Hoel-Gimsen raised to the rank of Commander of the Navy, effectively becoming the second highest-ranking military officer in the country by the end of the republic. However, by 1904 he became disappointed by the republican regime. He was allegedly in contact with several military officers that were part in the 1906 coup d’etat that brought to an end of the republic, although again, he did take part in the coup itself. However, he was instrumental to convince President Erhardt Tvedt to resign, effectively ending the monarchy.

After the coup, he would head the new Provisional Government. He personally received Theudbald III, and signed the decree that restored the Kingdom of Jugland. However, six days after Theudbald’s coronation, he was forced to resign and Baron Colmund Edin-Barthold was appointed as Prime Minister, as the monarch and his circle did not trust Hoel-Gimsen.

Despite calls by some of the most hardliner monarchists to judge for his role in the republican revolution, he was cleared of all charges by a military court. He retired from armed forces in 1908. He joined the Liberal Party in the 1920s, although he was not active in politics. He died in 1949, his funeral was attended by Prime Minister Osgard Hunstad-Nordby, which caused a small stir in the media.




Reinhardt Heimarr Nordraak (1859-1941)
Reinhardt Heimarr Nordraak joined the armed forced 1876. Until 1902, he remained in the military, achieving the rank of Major. In late 1901, he was investigated by the military authority on assisting anti-republican para-military groups but he was cleared of all charges. In 1903, he left the armed forces and left Jugland.

He exiled in Eskdale, where he convinced Baron Eversen av Hereide, who was leading a group of exiled Juglander monarchists in the country, to fund “Stemme”, an ultra-conservative newspaper. Still in Eskdale, he founded his own political organization, the Patriotic Union (later renamed as Patriotic League), along other 100 monarchist sympathizers.

In 1905, after the collapse of the radical republican government, he came back to Jugland. Stemme became soon the official newspaper of his movement. The Patriotic League, considered a far-right organization by many, actively supported the 1906 coup d’etat against the republican government.

Nordraak was member of the parliament from 1908 to 1937. In 1916, he was appointed Prime Minister by King Theudbald III. His government only lasted 22 months, as his attempts to restrict the powers of the local governments, which Nordraak felt they were being used by banned left-wing parties to promote opposition to the monarchy, backfired. He was replaced by Gautberaht Leonhardsen, from the Conservative Party.

He resigned as leader of the Patriotic League in 1922, although he remained the chairman of the Patriotic League until his death. Wydukind Hansen replaced him as leader of the radical party. In 1926-1927, Hansen would become the second and last Patriotic League Prime Minister.

The Patriotic League would join several conservative governments in the 1940s and 1950s, however, it entered a declining afterwards. They were elected to the Juglander parliament for last time in 1960, and it was finally dissolved in 1987.




Oswald Eadwald Russlatten (1862-1938)
Oswald Russlatten was a politician and leader of the Democratic Party.

Russlatten served as member of the parliament from 1896 to 1906. He became leader of the Democratic Party in 1902, and he served as minister in several governments during the Republic of Jugland.

After the republic was dissolved, he was arrested and sentenced to jail for 20 years. He would not be released until 1919. In 1922, he was elected as leader of the Democratic Party for a second time, after the Democratic Party was allowed to register as a legal party again. However, the Democratic Party was rather a marginal time by then. He resigned as leader of the Democratic Party in 1926. In 1928, he stood unsuccessfully for Mayor in Albrektberg. He obtained only 2% of the vote, even being surpassed by other left-leaning candidates, as the Socialist Party or an independent candidate supported by the Revolutionary Party. His political career had effectively ended.

In 1929, the Democratic Party would be officially dissolved after failed to gain any seats in the parliament for second time. A year later, he joined the Liberal Party, although he never stood as candidate for the Liberal Party. He published “My Word” in 1935, which was purposedly both a memoirs and a political manifesto. The book caused some stir in the media, particularly in the Left which denounced his positions and events depicted in the book. Russlatten did not renounce his republican ideals, although at the end of his life he accepted a constitutional monarchy as the most realistic political framework for Jugland.

He died in 1938, although his death went mostly unnoticed by both the media and the general public.






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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #13 on: June 21, 2021, 03:25:45 PM »

History: Important People of Jugland (6)




Lamprecht Cynebald Proysen (1852-1914)
Lamprecht Proysen was a theologian and politician. As his father, he became a religious magistrate after graduating in Natural Sciences and Theology in the University of Sandberg. From 1888 to 1897, he lived nearby Konndal, where he was the administrator of a local temple. Before the proclamation of the Republic of Jugland, he was known mostly as the author of "Against the Messiah" (1898), which was written as an attempt to refutate Christianism, as he was concerned about the increasing of that religion in Jugland at the time. However, he was not a conservative, and he had been a sympathizer of the Liberal Party, although he was not politicially active during the monarchy.

In 1900, he moved back to Sandberg, where he joined a religious college. In 1901, he was elected to the new parliament as an independent candidate from Sandberg. He played an important role in the constitutional debates. He founded the Moderate Party (not to be confused with the party of the same name that existed from 2019 to 2021), which sought to combine liberalism, nationalism, and peaceful socialism, aiming to propose social reform to prevent class struggle. The Moderate Party was not successful and only obtained a few seats in the several parliaments of the republican period. However, Proysen was elected Speaker of the parliament in 1902. The republican constitution had established a Presidency, which would combine the head of state and the head of government in the same person, and which would be indirectly elected by the parliament. Given the parliamentary division of the time, this caused weak presidents with short-lived governments. On other hand, this gave Proysen a huge influence, who as Speaker of the parliament had a considerably influence in political negotiations.

However, Proysen would resigned as Speaker of the Assembly in 1905, in protest against a law by the government which had approved to cease any state funding to religious temples, although he continued as member of the parliament. For his prominent role as Speaker of the republican parliament, he was sentenced in 1906 to serve a 20 years in jail. However, Albrektberg High Court reduced the sentences to 2 years of jail and 10 years of house arrest. The Moderate Party was disbanded in 1906, and most of their members joined the Liberal Party. In his last years, he wrote mostly on history and religion. Still under house arrest, Proysen died in 1914.




Giselmunda Asdys Warina Motland Sandemose av Slettenland (1861-1925)
Giselmunda Sandemose was a writer, journalist, politician, and feminist activist from Jugland. She came from a noble family, as Baron Sandemose av Slettenland's elder daughter. She did not attend the university, but she had a very highly advanced education, particularly in humanisties and natural sciences, thanks to tutors that his father hired for her private lessons. By 1890, Sandemose -as she was known- had already published three novels, several poetry collection, and two literary essays.

She had married in 1878, but had her first children only in 1886. Her husband was a lawyer and a Liberal Party local politician. After the death of her husband in 1896, she and her family moved to Albrektberg, where she started a career as journalist, as well as founding her own publishing house, which published mostly literary and education books. She wrote often in newspapers defending the access of women to instruction, including the access of women to high education. Along Steinnunna Karlsen, Sandemose was one of the founders of the suffragette movement in Jugland.

She was elected to the parliament in 1902, as candidate of the Liberal Alliance, formed by former members of the Liberal Party, becoming the first woman to be elected to a national parliament in the history of Jugland, despite she could not vote for herself, as women had no right to vote at the time. In the parliament, she focused mostly on women's rights and education issues. For her political labor, he faced opposition in the media. In the 1904, she was reelected, this time as candidate of the Moderate Party. After long debates, the republican finally passed a resolution establishing women's suffrage for all women aged 30 y.o. and married women aged 21 y.o.. However, women were not able to vote as the Republican of Jugland ceased to exist in 1906 following a coup d'etat. In the first parliamentary elections in 1908, only male suffrage was allowed. Women's right to vote will not be effectively achieved until 1948, under Prime Minister Osgard Hunstad-Nordby's government.

In 1911, Sandemose would return to his native home, although she would continue to publish several novels and plays, and continued to write on women's rights, publicating several essays, very influencial in the women's movement of the time. She often supported the Liberal Party, although increasingly disappointed about lack of progress in women's rights in the next decade.




Gebhardt Andeberaht Hammerseng (1876-1923)
Gebhardt Hammerseng was a writer, philosopher, and socialist activist. He was a leading member of the Juglander cooperative movement in the early 20th century, although he moved to the right in his last years.

In 1894, he joined the Socialist Party. After meeting Sigivald Nordberg in 1896, he started to write for "Arbeidside", the official newspaper of the General Federation of Workers, the largest union in Jugland at the time. In 1899, he joined Sandberg university, where he taught metaphysics and psychology. He continued teaching in the university until 1907, when he would be officially expelled and banned for teaching.

His most famous work is “Socialism and Society”, in which he exposed his concept of “communalization”, in which workers would directly take the means of production in order to manage them by their own and replace capitalism in a new socialist system. He also tried to build bridges between the unions and the cooperative movement. He was invited to the first congress of the Revolutionary Party. However, he became increasingly skeptical of state socialism. His rejection of Marxism would lead his work to influence leading members of the anarchist movement in Jugland. In the early 1920s, he would move increasingly toward nationalist positions, and we would participate in anti-communist campaigns shortly before his death in 1923.




Hramnberaht Reinhardt Kjusen (1874-1946)
Hramnberaht Reinhardt Kjusen was a political activist, journalist and economist.

Kjusen was born in Haugefjord in 1874, the son of a jeweller. He moved to Amvkhar in 1894, where he graduated in National University of Amvkhar. In 1898, he published his research on the local working movement. In 1900, he became professor of Sociology and Statistics in the State College of Gronbukt, in eastern Jugland. During the Republic of Jugland, he stayed on Gronbukt, and published several works on economic history, as well as writing biographies for an academic encyclopedia. He often wrote on political issues in the local media, but he was not active in politics.

He moved back to Amvkhar in 1911, becoming a lecturer on Economics in the National University of Amvkhar. He started to write articles for newspapers associated with the working movement and left-leaning magazines, very often on economic and socialist theory. During a travel to Albrektberg, he met Yngvildra Ulvestad and Johann Albrekt Ostensen, leading members of the Revolutionary Party. Soon afterwards, he started to write for newspapers close to the Revolutionary Party. In the 1930s, his academic work became increasingly political. However, he was disappointed when the Revolutionary Party adopted Marxism as their official ideology in 1931, becoming supportive of communist governments abroad.

In 1937, Kjusen moved back to Gronbukt. He influenced Sigeweard Franck (1901-1970), who was leader of the United Labour Party (established in 1949 as a merger of the Socialist Party and the Labour Party) from 1949 to 1967, whom he met while Franck was working for a law firm in Gronbukt.




Fredenand Othmarr Wetten-Sondral (1891-1959)
Fredenand Wetten-Sondral was a philosopher, diplomat, and politician. He was born in an aristocratic but liberal family. His father was elected to the parliament during the Republic of Jugland as a candidate of the Liberal Party.

In 1915, he started a career in diplomat, serving as attaché in several countries. He was elected to the parliament in 1936, as a Liberal Party candidate. He, however, shifted to the Conservative Party in 1940. He was Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1942 to 1945 and from 1951 to 1955. He resigned from the parliament in 1956, and joined the Royal Academy of Sciences.

Wetten-Sondral is mostly known for his philosophical and political writings. He formulated his “philosophical naturalism” in several philosophical books, which has influenced several Juglander philosophers and theologians. Besides his metaphysical works, his most famous book was “Meditation on Social Life”, which combines ontology and ethics. In his political works he defended the values of meritocratic liberalism and constitutional government, although he also defended some conservative ideas. Controversially, he opposed women’s suffrage. He also opposed socialism and communism in his writings. He is considered by many the most important Juglander philosopher of the 20th century.

He died in 1959, while preparing his completed works.




Wassyga Eydys Ulvestad (1890-1964)
Wassyga Ulvestad, or "Wassa" Ulvestad as she was commonly known, was a politician and advocate for women's rights.

Ulvestad was born in a small town nearby Branborg. His father was a schoolmaster while her mother came from a middle-class family from Haugefjord. The family moved to Haugefjord in 1904, and Wassyga Ulvestad was educated at Haugefjord State College for Women. While in school she established contacts with the Socialist Party.

After graduating, she married Klaus Gradamsen in 1911, who was a Socialist Party militant and twenty-four years her senior. However, Gradamsen was arrested in 1912, and Ulvestad went to exile in Heyra. She lived there until 1916, returning to Jugland in 1919. In 1920, she started a career as journalist, and became active in the women's movement. From 1921 to 1929, she published four books on women'r rights, and was active in the 1933-1935 campaign for women's suffrage. She joined the Revolutionary Party (which had been founded in 1904 as a split of the radical wing of the Socialist Party) in 1927, and was also active in the General Federation of Workers.

As most members in the Revolutionary Party at the time, Ulvestad was increasingly influenced by Marxism. In 1931, the Revolutionary Party adopted Marxism as official ideology. Ulvestad stood as parliamentary candidate in the 1932, 1935, and 1937 elections. The Revolutionary Party moved toward Marxist-Leninist and changed its name in 1939, being renamed as the Communist Party of Jugland.

Ulvestad was again active in the campaign for women's suffrage, which was finally achieved in 1948, under a Liberal Party government. She stood as candidate of the Revolutionary Party in 1951 -the first ones in which the Revolutionary Party was allowed to register-, being finallly elected to the parliament in 1955. She remained a member of the parliament until her death, in 1964.

Ulvestad was elected General Secretary of the Communist Party in 1961, becoming the first women to ever lead a parliamentary group in Jugland. She was replaced by Hermann Oppgaard (1892-1993), who remained as leader of the Communist Party until 1982, endorsing a policy of "peaceful revolution toward communism".

Ulvestad wrote more than 27 books, most of them dealing with the women's movement, socialist theory, as well as collections of her political pamphlets and speeches.











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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #14 on: June 22, 2021, 10:21:24 AM »

History: Important People of Jugland (7)




Herewardt Bjornstad (1874-1965)

Herewardt Bjornstad was a politician, leader of the Conservative Party from 1940 to 1955. He was Prime Minister twice (1940-1945 and 1951-1955).

Bjornstad graduated in Law and Constitutional Studies in the University of Sandberg. He did not do the military service as consequence of respiratory problems he had suffered since childhood.

In 1903, he became professor of Philosophy of Law in the University of Nordheim. He was not politically active during the Republic of Jugland, rather dedicated to academic life. From 1912 to 1918, he travelled through several countries. He was a member of the Conservative Party. In 1921, he was elected to the parliament for first time, as a candidate in Sandberg.

He served as Minister of Justice in Leobwyn Ekeberg's first Conservative government (1925-1926). He became a close associate and confident of the Prime Minister. He served as Minister of Foreign Affairs in Ekeberg's second and third governments (1927-1929 and 1935-1937). Ekeberg had become Prime Minister for a second time after the fall of Wydukind Hansen's government, the second and last Prime Minister from the ultra-conservative Patriotic League. Hansen had lost the confidance of the monarch after his foreign policy was esteemed increasingly sympathizing toward the Ardian Empire.

As Foreign Minister, he implement a foreign policy officially known as "active neutrality", which established that foreign governments should not judge positively or negatively the governments or changes in government of other states, as such an action would imply a breach of national sovereignty. Such policy implied that upon the establishment of de facto governments in other countries, Jugland would not support giving recognition because it considered that it would weaken Jugland interests when deciding about the legality and legitimacy of those foreign governments. As a government, Jugland did not withdraw its recognition of those governments that were formed through a coup d'etat or violent revolution. Only in certain situations, typically under communist regimes, Jugland withdrew its diplomatic mission. The "active neutrality" was inspired in the principle of non-intervention, considering that Jugland should not make judgements, positive or negative, about the governments or the changes in governments of other nation. The policy was aimed to strengthen the position of the Kingdom of Jugland, and avoid conflict with more powerful nations.

Bjornstad continued as Minister of Foreign Affairs under Othmarr Sperrevik's government, from 1937 to 1940, and after his resignation, he became leader of the Conservative Party and Prime Minister from 1940 to 1945. Despite losing the 1945 and 1949 elections, he continued as leader of the Conservative Party and would become Prime Minister for a second time in 1951. Four years later, he resigned as consequences of health problems, being replaced by Raymond Aamodt-Vikingstad, the Minister of Home Affairs.

Bjornstad did not run for reelection in 1960, and he would die in 1965. However, the foreign policy established by him would survive him during most of the existance of the Kingdom of Jugland.

Bjornstad influenced several generations of Juglander politicians, and his foreign policy was followed by most of Juglander governments, with only a few exceptions. Burkhardt Kvalheim, Minister of Foreign Affairs (2020-2021) and current Secretary of Foreign Affairs is said to be an admirer of Bjornstad.




Hrafnhildra Iduuna Haavelmo (1925-2006)

Hrafnhildra I. Haavelmo was a lawyer and politician. She became the first woman to serve as a Minister in the Kingdom of Jugland.

Born in Nammes, Haavelmo graduated in Law and Administration in the National University of Amvkhar. She completed her studies in the National University of Albrektberg with three courses on constitutional theory and commercial law. In 1954, she started to work in her uncle's law firm. She became a state lawyer in 1959.

She was a member of the Liberal Party, and she was appointed Minister of Housing and Public Works in the Liberal government of Lamprecht Lovland (1966-1969). She was elected to the parliament in 1969. However, Lovland was defeated by the candidate of the Conservative Party, Ulrich Bredesen. She continued as member of the parliament until 1977. Although Lovland became Prime Minister for a second time in 1973, Haavelmo did not join the government this time. Instead, he became spokesperson in the Commission of Justice and Administrative Reforms.

In 1979, she became professor of Law and Constitutional Law in the Royal Albrektberg College. She retired in 1996. She died in 2006 as consequence of a cancer.




Theudbald Njall Stenseth (1939-2020)

Theudbald Stenseth was a politician. He was the founder and leader of the People's Party, a republican political party.

In his youth, Stenseth had been a member of the Communist Party. He had graduated in History in the State College of Gronbukt. He was schoolteacher from 1964 to 1977.

He had joined the United Labour Party in 1969, and was elected mayor of Gronbukt in 1978. However, he became incresingly disgruntled by the national leadership of the United Labour Party, and left the party in 1984. He founded his own political party, the People's Party. He failed to be reelected in 1986, although he was elected to the national parliament in 1991. He remained a member of the parliament until 2009.

Stenseth's People's Party was a radical left-leaning political party. Although it was not a socialist party, the party expanded and consolidated at that the same time that the Communist Party increased their decline. The People's Party was an openly republican party, which combined nationalism with support toward welfare policies, and a center-left orientation on social policy. However, unless other left-wing political parties, it was not an openly secular political party, being Stenseth himself a religious person. The People's Party was particularly stronger in eastern and southeastern Jugland, as well as some rural areas in the northwestern provinces.

The People's Party consolidated their presence in the national parliament in the late 1990s, obtaining 49 seats in the 2000 election, their best result in a legislative elections. After the Liberal Party stopped to support Alaric Aukrust's government in 2009, Stenseth joined the government, as well as other People's Party members, becoming Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Administrative Affairs. It was the first time since the restoration of the Kingdom of Jugland that an openly republican political party had joined the national government. However, the left-wing coalition did not last long, as King Engelhardt III asked Aukrust to resign and dissolved the parliament six weeks later. This prompted the 2009 constitutional crisis, which led to a constitutional reform in 2010, increasing the executive powers of the monarch.

Stenseth, already 75 years old, attempted to lead the protests in 2014, but he found himself marginalized, and the influence of the People's Party quickly faded away, divided in many factions. Stenseth was arrested in 2015, but he was released in 2017. He left Jugland and in early 2020 he died in the Republic of Fleur.




King Engelhardt III (1940-2014)

Engelhardt was crowned King Engelhardt III of Jugland in 1972, when he was still 31 years old , after the death of his father. His 42-year reign would eventually become the most convoluted since the restoration of the Kingdom of Jugland, as the country descended into conflict and civil war at the end of his reign.

He studied Law and Administration in the Royal Albrektberg College. After completing military service, he completed his studies, graduating in International Relations and History. Preparing for his future role as Juglander monarch, he started a tour abroad through several countries when the sudden death of his father, King Gerlach IV surprised him.

During his reign, Jugland experienced increasingly accelerating changes, from a cultural, political, economic, and social point of view. In 1986, Gautberaht Northug, from the center-left United Labour Party, became Prime Minister of Jugland. At the end of Northug's term, in 1991, the relationship between the monarch and the Prime Minister allegedly worsened considerably, which made the king wary when the United Labour Party came back to power in 2008. After Alakrust, instead of calling snap elections decided to include anti-monarchist ministers in his cabinet, King Engelhardt III forced him to resign and dissolved the parliament. A constitutional crisis followed, and Engelhardt III imposed a constitutional reform through the Upper House, increasing his executive power.

A succession of several short-lived governments did not improve the situation, and the government faced an economic stagnation which led to a wave of protests in 2013-2014. By late 2013, Engelhardt III fell severy ill, while a failed attempt to repress the protests by the  government, particularly in the eastern provinces, which were hit by a wave of deadly riots, eventually moved the country toward armed conflict. Engelhardt died a few months later, being succeded by his son Khrym, who inherited a nation in an unprecedented crisis.




Alaric Aukrust (1954)

Alaric Aukrust was a politician, leader of the United Labour Party from 1999 to 2012, and Prime Minister from 2008 and 2009.

Aukrust was a long-serving member of the center-left United Labour Party, which he joined when he was a teenager. He graduated in Law in the University of Nordheim, and started his political career soon after finishing his university studies. He was elected to the national parlaiment in 1990, during the government of Gautberaht Northug, who led the first United Labour Party government in Jugland.

In 1999, he won the leadership contest and became leader of the United Labour Party. After several failed attempts, the United Labour Party was the largest political party in the parliament in the 2008 election, although it failed to obtain a large enough majority. After long negotiations, Aukrust was elected Prime Minister under a United Labour Party minority government with the support of the Liberal Party. The government platform was relatively moderate, although with the higher increase in social spending in three decades. A sudden change of leadership in the Liberal Party put the existence of his government in peril. Aukrust reisted, however, and after tense negotiations, he entered in negotiations with the People's Party and a new left-wing coalition was established without the need of snap elections, with the inclusion of four ministers from the People's Party.

However, a few weeks later, King Engelhardt III urged Aukrust to resign, causing a constitutional crisis. Aukrust, however, did not put much resistance, and most of United Labour Party senators decided to boycott the new constitutional reform proposed in the Upper House, instead of voting against them. He continued as leader of the United Labour Party until 2012.

During the 2013-2014 crisis, the United Labour Party urged protesters to respect the constitutional order, despite the increasing authoritarian policies adopted by Hulderic Eggsen and
Fulberaht Hansen-Bergen. The conflict caused the United Labour Party to divide in several factions and organizations, with a increasing fall in the party membership.

Aukrust would be candidate in the 2020 Constituent Assembly election, but he would fail to be elected.





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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #15 on: June 22, 2021, 08:24:33 PM »


History: Juglander civil war (2014-2020)



Background

The Kingdom of Jugland entered in a deep constitutional crisis at the end of the first decade of the 20th century when King Engelhardt III dissolved the parliament and forced a constitutional reform which increased his executive powers. Although the parliament was restored in 2012, Alaric Aukrust's government was replaced by several moderate and right-leaning governments which lacked enough parliamentary and public support, and increasingly depended on the monarch's confidence.

Political protests and complains about economic stagnation and rising food prices combined in the 2013-2014 protests, which were particularly active in the larger towns of the country.The protsts continued during Autumn 2013, and derived in riots in southerneastern and eastern Jugland, where the economic situation had worsened considerably. Riots in Gronbukt, Ngeingta, Mjodde, Hamarrland, and Sandheim turned deadly, leading to the resignation of Prime Minister Farvald Karlsen. He was replaced by Hulderic Eggsen, from the Coalition of Right Forces, a nationalist coalition created once year before, but Eggsen failed to control the situation.


Escalation: 2014-2016

Eggsen was replaced Fulberaht Hansen-Bergen, also from the Coalition of Right Forces, which government would only last another five months. Hramnberaht Floand, the new Prime Minister, aimed to lead a technocratic government, but neither his governments nor the next ones would be able to estabilize the situation. In some towns and provinces, the situation derived in what was described as the appearance of "urban terrorism" and para-military armed groups.

The murder of Godehardt Rudarsen in 2014, a leading politician from Fjellstad, whose authors were never found, with pro-government and anti-government groups accusing each others of being behind the murder, led to a further escalation. By late 2014, several military officers had defected, leading the government to lost control of several towns in the east and southwestern regions, and initiated a larger conflict.

The National Army, which had being founded in late 2013 as a small armed group, consolidated its growth after a few former Juglander military officers and volunteers joined their ranks in 2014, and in September 2014, they had their first victory after forcing the government forces to withdraw from Briskemyr. They established their own local governments, and expanded their territor in the next weeks and months, although they also suffered some devastating defeats in the hands of government forces.

Conservative Party came back to government in early 2015, under Wulfgang Grongstad, who had been Minister of Defense from 2002 to 2008, in a government that included other center-right parties and independent ministers. However, Grongstad failed to estabilize the situation and his government only lasted nine months. He was replaced by Berahtrand Motland, who launched two successive and successful offensives in the southwestern and northeastern regions, regarding territory and forced the National Army to withdraw toward the east. Those victories were futile, as they only devastated the economy and created a huge humanitarian crisis. GDP collapsed by 40% before the end of the year, which as well as increasing isolation of the Kingdom of Jugland complicated the standing of the national government despite the losses caused in the anti-government forces.

Stagnation: 2017-2019

Berahtrand Motland's government was forced to increasingly rely on pro-government para-military and militias, such as the so-called "United League of Independent Counties" in the northeastern region, and was forced to resign in late 2016. He was replaced by Bernhardt Vigeland, a former member of the Liberal Party, which aimed to restore the situation. Eventually, Vigeland negotiated a first ceasefire with the National Army and offered negotiations but this early attempts failed. After the Battle of Ngeingta, in which the government forces suffered an unexpected defeat, Prime Minister Bernhardt Vigeland resigned and was replaced by General Sepp Nupekam.

Main beligerents at the peak of the conflict, around 2018-2019
NameRoyal Armed ForcesNational ArmyUnited LeagueOthers
IdeologyArmed Forces of the Kingdom of JuglandAnti-governmentPro-governmentMostly anti-government
DescriptionThe Royal Armed Forces are the armed forces of the Kingdom of Jugland. The monarch, as head of state of the kingdom, is the commander-in-chiefThe National Army is the armed-wing of the National Coaliton, the main anti-government political movement in JuglandThe so-called United League -officially the "United League of Independent Counties" is a group of militias, associated to the Independent Civic Party. They operate mostly in rural areas, specially in western and central JuglandOther armed groups
Established(current form) in 1906late 201320152012-2019
LeadershipKing Khrym ILars Midtvedt
Fredenand Mohr
Hugleikrarr Michael BartensenUnknown
Military age18 years old18 years old18 years oldUnknown
Total active personnel87,83254,890~5,000~2,000-3,000
Ground forces43,120 military
560 tanks
1,742 IFV/APC
47,340 military
429 tanks
1,498 IFV/APC
~4,800 military
~140 IFV/APC
~2,000-2,800
Air Force30,600 military
248 aircraft
150 helicopters
5,550 military
~80 aircraft
~110 helicopters
~100 military
10 helicopters
Unknown
Navy14,112 military
3 submarines, 2 frigates, 1 corvette
7 auxiliary ships and 3 trainning vessels
35 naval aircraft
~2,000 military
1 auxiliary ship and 1 training vessel
9 naval aircraft
nonenone



Conclusion


After the Ngeingta disaster, General Sepp Nupekam's government seemed to regain control of the situation. His government's "controlled tension" strategy, aimed to combine large-escale military offensives with limited truces and ceasefire and non-political negotiations was controversial but seemed effective enough, at least for a while. By late 2019, the royal government regained control of much of the northern and southeastern provinces, while the war escalated in the central front. However, his increasingly authoritarian government, with a increasing number of people sentenced and executed by military courts, which powers had been expanded under Prime Minister Berahtrand Motland's government, increased tensions inside, as well a controversial foreign policy, which increased economic dependance on Lakhzovia and a closer relation with Tamora's government.

A wave of protests, started by student organizations demanding free elections and peace negotiations to end the war, were met with repressive force by Nupekam's government. Meanwhile, he launched two successful and large offensives toward the southeast and northeastern regions, aimed to isolate the National Army. However, the offensives had the effect of weakening the central front, which allowed the National Army -not without huge losses, to break the front and getting closer to Albrektberg provinces.

On June 2020, protests restarted in Emrta, which would escalate to a military insurrection after a mutiny in the Royal Navy surprised the government in Amvkhar port. A few hours later, a group of army officers arrested leading members of the military leadership in Albrektberg, forcing General Nupekan to withdraw to Albrektberg-Morthen district, while news came from Amvkhar that Admiral Asketyll
Gillmark had taken control of the islander province, cutting communication with Albrektberg, the residance of the royal family at the time. The next morning, Nupekam would be assassinated by two young military officers, although it was announced later that they had no relation with the coup plotters, and their murderers ending facing a military trial.

Two days later, King Khrym I announced his abdication, and he granted General Stian Mjosberg, Chief of the General Staff, full powers to lead a Provisional Government. Mjosberg -although officially was not involved in the conspiration against Nupekam's government- promised national election. He forced National Army forces to retreat from Albrektberg province -as the rebel forces were also to approach a few dozens of kms. to Albrektberg, Juglander capital city, for first time since the beginning of the conflict. Mjosberg, as President of the Provisional Government, agreed a ceasefire on the central front with the National Army, and started negotiations, with failed to give any result. However, he lost confidance of the military leadership, and he was forced to resign two months later, being replaced by military officer, Eadwald Engelsaas.

Eadwald Engelsaas agreed a second ceasefire with the National Army, this time a nationwide one, and political negotiations were started. Local elections were called -only in the territory controlled by Engelsaas government-, and on late October, nationwide elections were held after elections to a Constituent Assembly were held, the first nationwide election in Jugland since 2012. Negotiations continued, meanwhile the Constituent Assembly passed a proposal to a new constitution, which was finally passed in national referendum on December, leading to the establishment of the Federal Union of Jugland.

While a hopeful future opened for Jugland, the long conflict left a devastated economy, caused from 279,600 to 397,000 casualties, six million of internally displaced people and another one-two million of refugees abroad. However, the damage was not the same nationwide, as the most affected areas were the eastern region (now renamed as Austland) and the northeastern and southern regions, while the west provinces barely experienced military conflict since 2015, with Emrta archipelago only suffering 279 casualties for the whole 2014-2020 period.



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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #16 on: June 23, 2021, 02:11:13 PM »

Culture: Sports in Jugland



Various sporting events and disciplines are popular in Jugland. These include soccer, cycling, tennis, basketball, netsball, Juglander baseball and, to a lesser degree, handball, futsal, netball, lacrosse, hockey, and badminton. The popularity of those sports may vary depending on gender, age, and regional and urban-rural differences.

Soccer is the most popular sport in terms of active membership. It is, along basketball, nestball and Juglander baseball, one of the most practiced sports in the school system.

Jugland has never hosted Mundus Games, although it has been traditionally participated in most of them with rather modest results. However, the participation of Jugland in world events such as Summer and Winter Games decreased as consequence of the armed conflict in the country from 2013 to 2020, which also had an impact in the quality, development, and participation in sport events. Since the end of the conflict, interest in sports events, particularly in team sports, has increased considerably and many professional sports leagues were relaunched or reformed.

Soccer, basketball, netsball, Juglander baseball, handball, and futsal all have competitive professional leagues. Rugby is not a popular sport in Jugland, although it has experienced a surge in interest as consequence of Jugland participation for first time in the Rugby World Cup in 2021.



Team sports

The soccer professional system was reformed in 2020. The oldest football tournament is the Juglander Cup, consisting in a knockout tournament of currently 32 teams, which is usually held from February to July. The Elite Football League, the men's professional soccer league, was established in late 2020, consisting in 18 clubs. It started on December 2020.

The First Division, women's soccer top division, has twelve teams since 2021. The Women's Superleague is played between the twelve clubs of the First Division and the top four clubs from the Second Division. The current champion of the Women's Superleague is Albrektberg FD.

The National Basketball League, also known BLJD, is played by 18 clubs, and which winner is decided through a playoff system. The Basketball SuperCup is played in half-season by the top eight teams in the National Baskelball League. The current champion of the Basketball SuperCup is Nordheim who defeated Anlebaek in the final match held on May 2021.

The Women's Basketball League (KLB) is played by 12 clubs, with the same format than men's basketball. The Basketball Federal Cup, or KLB Cup, is played in half season by the top four clubs in the regular season. The current champion is Gjengfasthet Albrektberg.

The professional men's league in handball and futsal consist currently in 10 clubs, with the women's top league of those sports currently consisting in 8 clubs.

Both men's and women's professional in Juglander baseball consist in 12 clubs. Unlike other team sports in Jugland, Juglander baseball has a mostly rural following, with only a few clubs in the main cities. There is only one professional league in nestball, being a mixed sport, with currently 14 clubs as the league was relaunched in May 2021.



Other sport events

Before 2014, there were several tennis tournament, both national and continental, in Jugland. The oldest tennis tournament in Jugland is the Juglander Open, a national tourmanent held annually in which participate the men's and women's tennis players from Jugland.

On June 2021, it was held from first time the Kvinne Cup, an international tennis tournament, which was won by Tytorian Michelle Kingman.

There are several cycling events, including the Juglander National Championships, in which are decided the annual national champions in men's and women's cycling. The winners of the race will wear in their maillot the colours of the Juglander flag in any other cycling events they participate for the rest of the season.

The most important cycling race is the Tour of Jugland which was held uninterruptedly from 1945 to 2012. The riders with most wins, four, are Heimarr Henriksen (1973, 1974, 1977, and 1978) and Gottwyn Vinter (1982, 1985, 1986, 1987).

In women's cycling, the Juglander Ladies Tour, usually held in Emrta, was held from 1991 to 2013. Thora Bjerknes had the race record with three wins in 2009, 2011, and 2013.

There are a large number of cycling national, continental, and international one-day races. Between them, the most important ones are the Midtenstadt Grand Prix (in men's cycling) and the Albrektberg-Mjodde-Albrektberg Classic (in women's cycling).





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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #17 on: June 29, 2021, 12:57:50 PM »

Culture: Demographics and Languages



Languages of Jugland

Csletian language, also known as Csleta language, is the only official language in the Federal Union of Jugland. It is the native language for most of Juglander citizens, and the only national recognized as such in the Constitution of the Federal Union of Jugland.

It is believe that Csletian is not a native language from Coft Aranye, with the first texts in proto-Csletian dated around century 8th in southwestern Jugland.




Kielic language is considered the oldest language in Jugland, which earliest sources dated in the second century. It is considered a revived language, however, having become extinct in the early 18th century. A limited revival was attempted in the late 19th century and early 20th century, particularly in the eastern regions of Jugland. Before becoming extinct, the language was mostly spoken in eastern, and southeastern Jugland, particularly in rural areas.

Jugland's federal government recognizes Kielic language as a minority language, although federal and state administrations are not required to use and known the language. More recently, the Austland state government recognized Kielic language as an official language in the state (although with a legal status behind Csletian language), and school courses on Kielic language will be available in all schools and high schols of that state since 2021-2022. The Vannesdal state government has also recently funded several cultural programs aimed to promote the language. These policies, although limited to the states and Vannesdal and Austland, are resulting in a low but growing number of second language speakers, as well as very small number of families now raise children speaking the language, aiming to increase the number of first language speakers of revived Kielic language.



Juglander diaspora

It is estimated that there are from 1 to 4 million people of Juglander heritage, either Juglander citizens or descendants of Juglander immigrants, living abroad. Their connection with the motherland may vary considerably. Most of them live in Lazhkovia and other western Coft Aranye, although there are considerable Juglander communities in Alba Karinya and Albion as well.

The first wave of Juglander immigration happened in late 19th century, increasing considerably in the early 20th century, as consequence of the political turmoil during the years of the Republic of Jugland, and the restoration of the monarchy in 1906. Juglander immigration considerably started to decline after the 1930s.

However, the largest wave of Juglander immigration happened in the 21th century, during the Juglander civil war (2014-2020), particularly from 2015 to 2019. Some of those who moved from Jugland returned after 2021, but others have stayed in their new countries of residence, depening their circumstances.




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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #18 on: June 30, 2021, 02:04:02 PM »
Economy of Jugland



The economy of Jugland is an emerging free market economy, recovering from an armed conflict in the country from 2014 to 2020. Before the war, Jugland's GDP per capita was around $29,704, falling to $14,978 in 2018. Currently, the GDP per capita is $15,101. In late 2020, the economy of Jugland grew for first time in eight years. Since them, the economy has started to grow rapidly again, although the country is still affected by such problems as loss of workforce, increasing but still low foreign investment, lack of credit, and more recently, an environmental disaster in eastern Austland which particularly has affected the agriculture sector in that state.

The government of Jugland, after the establishment of the Federal Union of Jugland and the consolidation of the peace process, is optimistic about the future of the economy of the country, as Jugland has rich farmlands, particularly in the southern and southeastern regions, a well-developed industrial base in the western states, highly trained labour, and a tradition of cooperation between education system and local companies. However, increasing regional inequality and high unemployment (particularly in northern and eastern Jugland) remain the most important challenges the economy will face in the next decade.
 
Jugland is relatively rich in natural resources, particularly in mineral deposits. Although the country lack oil and natural gas reserves, it has other important energy sources, such as coal, hydroelectricity and, more recently, nuclear energy.

The main industries and economic sectors are agriculture (particularly wheat, barley, oatmeal, rye, potatoes, vegetables, beef, and dairy products), food processing, coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals (iron ore, manganese, salt, sulfur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, nickel, mercury, clay, others), machinery and trasnport equipment, chemicals, synthetic fibers, fertilizer, textiles, and timber.

For a list of some of the main Jugland's companies, you can go to Albrektberg Stock Exchange.


Trade

Jugland's largest trade partners include Lakhzovia, East Moreland, Fleur, Achkaerin, and Aosta.






« Last Edit: July 01, 2021, 12:33:29 AM by paralipomena »
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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #19 on: July 01, 2021, 09:02:05 AM »

Culture: Entertainment



Juglander popular culture includes many forms of entertainment from music, dance, cinema, arts, and literature.

Strand Media Entertainment is the largest media and entertainment company in Jugland. Established in 1971, it mostly produces movies, television shows, as well as managing several theatres in Jugland.

Since its creation, Strand Media Entertainment has received 27 Leobwyn Awards (the most important awards for artistical and technical merit in Jugland's film industry, organized by the Juglander Cinematographic Academy), including 40 nomination. In 2021, Strand Media Entertainment received their first award in the international Ostlake Movie Award, in the category for Best International Short Film for "Good Business", as well as other two nominations in other categories.

Strand Media Entertainment established in 2010 the Strand Foundation, which gives grants to actors and theatre companies, as well as organizing the Adlercreutz Awards, the most important awards for performing arts. Since 2015, the Adlercreutz Awards are held in Amvkhar, Emrta.





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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #20 on: July 03, 2021, 09:36:52 PM »

Media in Jugland




Television - Radio - Newspapers

NameFrequencyCategoryCirculationDescription/NotesLanguageOwner
NameFrequencyCategoryCirculationDescription/NotesLanguageOwner
Juglander Review   
-
Online only since 2015   
-
Juglander Review was established in Amvkhar in 1899. It was relaunched as an international newspaper in 1979   Csletian / English   Frihet Publishing House Ltd.   

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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #21 on: July 04, 2021, 02:04:02 PM »

Constitution of the Federal Union of Jugland



Spoiler: Chapter 1: The Federal Union • show
Article 1  – The Federal Union of Jugland is a sovereign federal republic.

Article 2 – The powers of the Federal Union of Jugland are vested in the people, who are represented by the Federal Council. Democracy and rule of law are the unnegotiable principles in which the Federal Union of Jugland is established.

Article 3 – The legislative powers are exercised by the Federal Council, formed by the National Assembly and the Senate. The executive powers are execised by the National Council. The judicial powers are exercised by independent courts, with the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Council  as the highest stances.

Article 4 – The territory of the Federal Union of Jugland is indivisible. The national borders can not be altered without the consent of the Federal Council.

Article 5 – All children of at least one parent with Juglander citizen has the right to be to Juglander citizenship.

A child acquires Juglander citizenship at birth if born in Jugland to at least one parent who (a) is a Juglander citizen; or (b) was also born in Jugland (even if the parent is not themself a Juglander citizen).


Spoiler: Chapter 2: Fundamental rights • show
Article 6 – Everyone is equal before the law. No discrimination on the grounds of gender, age, ethnicity, language, religion, sexual orientation, opinion, disability or other reasons should be allowed. Gender equality should be promoted by the state institutions in both social and working life, especially of pay and other terms of employment.

Article 7 – The rights to life, personal liberty, and integrity should be assured. Both death penalty and all forms of torture, including any violation of human dignity, are illegal.

No one shall be deprived of liberty arbitrarily or without reason prescribed by a law. The deprivation of liberty may be submitted for review by a court of law. The penalty imposed for an offense shall not be more severa than that provided by the law at the time of its commission.

Article 8 – Citizens and foreigners legally residing in Jugland have the right to freely move within the country and to choose their place of residence. Everyone has the right to leave the country.

Juglander citizens shall not be prevented from entering the Federal Union of Jugland or deported or extradited or transferred to another country against their will. For the purpose of legal proceedings, however, a Juglander citizen can be extradited or transferred to a country in which his or her human rights and legal protection are guaranteed.

A foreigner shall not be deported, extradited or returned to another country, if in consequence he or she is in danger of death sentence, torture, any other treatment violating human dignity, or any crime that does not exist in the Federal Union of Jugland.

Article 9 – The right to a private life and honour are guaranteed. The secrecy of correspondence, telephone and other confidential communication is inviolable without judiciary authorization.

Article 10 – Freedom of religion and conscience are guaranteed. Everyone has the right to profess and practice a religion, the right to express one’s convictions and the right to be a member of or decline to be a member of a religious community. No one is under the obligation, against his or her conscience, to participate in the practice of a religion.

Article 11 – Everyone has the freedom of expression, to disseminate and receive information, opinions and other communications without prior prevention by anyone. Documents and recordings in the possession of the authorities are public, unless their publication has for compelling reasons been specifically restricted by the law. Everyone has the right of access to public documents and recordings.

Provisions on restrictions relating the protection of children may be laid down by the law.

Article 12 – Freedom of assembly and freedom of association are guaranteed.

The freedom to form trade unions and to organize in order to look after other interesters is guaranteed.

Article 13 – Every citizen who has reached eighteen years of age has the right to vote in local, state, and national elections, as well as referendums that may be organized.

Every citizen, having attained eighteen years of age, has the right to vote in any official election in the Federal Union of Jugland.

The public authorities shall promote the opportunities for the individual to participate in social and political life adn to influence the decisions that concern him or her.

Article 14 – The property of everyone is protected. Provisions on the expropriation of property, for public needs, are laid down by a federal law.

Article 15 – Everyone has the right to basic education free of charge. The freedom of science, the arts and higher education is guaranteed.

Article 16 – The national and official language of the Federal Union of Jugland is the Csletian language. Other regional languages may be recognized by the state authorities. Minorities have the right to maintain and develop their own language and culture. The rights of persons using sign language and of persons in need of interpretation and translation shall be guaranteed by the state.

Article 17 – Everyone has the right to work and the freedom to engage in commercial activity. The public authorities shall take responsibility for the protection of the labour force.

The public authorities shall promote employment and work towards guaranteeing for everyone the right to work. No one shall be dismissed from employment without a lawful reason.

Article 18 – Those who cannot obtain the means necessary for a life of dignity have the right to receive indispensable subsistence and care. Everyone shall be guaranteed the right to basic subsistence in the event of unemployment, illness, and disability and during old age as well as at the birth of a child or the loss of a provider.

The public authorities shall guarantee for everyone, adequate social, health, and medical services and promote the health of the population. Moreover, the public authorities shall support families and others responsible for providing for children so that they have the ability to ensure the wellbeing and personal development of the children.

The public authorities shall promote the right of everyone to housing and the opportunity to arrange their own housing.

Article 19 – Nature and its biodiversity, the environment, and the national heritage are the resposibility of everyone. The public authorities shall endeavour to gurantee for everyone the right to a healthy environment and for everyone the possibility to influence the decisions that concern their own living environment.

Article 20 – Everyone has the right to have his o her case dealt with appropiately and without undue delay by a legally competent court of law or other authority, as well as to have a decision pertaining to his or her rights or obligations reviewed by a court of law or other independent organ for the administration of justice.

Provisions concerning the publicity of proceedings, the right to be heard, the right to receive a reasoned decision and the right of appeal, as well as the other guarantees of a fair trial and good governance shall be laid down by the law.

Article 21 – The public authorities shall guarantee the observance of basic rights and liberties and human rights.

Article 22 -Provisional exceptions to basic rights and liberties that are deemed necessary of an armed attack against Jugland or in the event of other situations of emergy, posing a serious threat to the nation, may be provided by legislation or a National Council decree. The grounds for provisional exceptions shall be laid down by a law, however, federal government decrees shall without delay be submitted to the National Assembly for consideration. The National Assembly may decide on the validity of the decrees.


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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #22 on: July 04, 2021, 02:46:37 PM »

Federal Union of Jugland - Legislative activity



Note: This list is not exhaustive, only including that legislation that has been actively mentioned in IC threads. Both the National Assembly and the Senate may have passed other legislation that has not been mentioned or listed here.



Parliamentary activity and/or legislation passed by the Federal Council. All previous laws are still valid unless they have been repealed by the parliament or declared unconstitutional by the Constitutional Council.

  • December 31, 2020 The Federal Union of Jugland is established.
  • January 21, 2021 Bernhardt Krohg (FDP) is appointed Speaker of the National Assembly.
  • January 27, 2021 Marriage Act, which establishes civil marriages without the need ofa certificate from religious authorities, reform and reduce the terms and time to adquire a divorce, and increases the rights of civil partnership including the right to adoption.
  • February 3, 2021 Non-binding Resolution calling the National Council to adopt legal and constitutional measures to keep the territorial integrity of the Federal Union.
  • February 15, 2021 Election of new National Council.
  • February 22, 2021 National Assembly approves joining the Mundus Convention of Universal Rights.
  • March 12, 2021 National Assembly passes Social Equality Act, abolishing nobility titles.
  • March 20, 2021 National Assembly passes resolution establishing the Nyaera Calendar as the official calendar of the Federal Union of Jugland.
  • Vinduar 14 National Assembly passes constitutional proposals for state constitution in the states of Vestmark and Vannesdal.
  • Vinduar 16 National Assembly passes constitutional proposal for state constitution in the state of Midstemdal.
  • Vinduar 25 National Assembly passes the Federal Healthcare Act, establishing a federal national healthcare system.
  • Vinduar 26 National Assembly passes constitutional proposals for state constitution in the states of Austland and Nordansk.
  • Spiruar 11 National Assembly passes constitutional proposal for state constitution in the state of Emrta.
  • Spiruar 20 National Assembly passes legislation establishing dual citizenship for Juglander citizens who were born abroad after January 2010.
  • Friktuar 25 Senate ratifies trade agreement with the Kingdom of East Moreland.
  • Solember 4 National Assembly passes National Defense Reform Act, which abolishes compulsory military service and military conscription.
  • Varmember 2-8 National Assembly and Senates elect last appointments to the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Council.
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« Last Edit: July 04, 2021, 03:12:48 PM by paralipomena »
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