Author Topic: Civil Factbook of the Empire of Daitō  (Read 3139 times)

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Re: Civil Factbook of the Empire of Daitō
« Reply #30 on: August 25, 2021, 08:44:05 AM »
National Holidays of Daitō, Part One

Daitōjin New Years
First New Moon of the Year

Spoiler: Daitōjin New Year • show
The Daitōjin New Year (四方拝, Shihō-hai) is an annual festival with its own customs. It is held on the first New Moon of January on the Gregorian calendar. It is not, despite a few believing otherwise, held on the first day of the Gregorian Calendar, which is not usually a holiday.

Traditional Food
The Daitōjin eat a selection of dishes during the New Year celebration called osechi-ryōri, typically shortened to osechi. Many of these dishes are sweet, sour, or dried, so that they can keep without refrigeration: the culinary traditions date to a time before households had refrigerators and when most stores closed for the holidays. There are many variations of osechi, and some foods eaten in other places (or even considered inauspicious or banned) on New Years Day. Another popular dish is ozōni, a soup with mochi rice cake and ingredients which differ in various regions of Daitō. It is also common to eat buckwheat noodles caleld toshikoshi soba on ōmisoka (New Years Eve). Today, sashimi and sushi are often eaten as well as non-Daitōjin foods. In order to let the overworked stomach rest, seven-herb rice soup is prepared on the seventh day after New Years Day, a day known as jinjitsu.

Another custom is to create and eat rice cakes known as mochi. Steamed sticky rice, or mochigome, is put into a wooden container called an usuand patted with water by one person while another hits it with a large wooden mallet. Mashing the rice, it forms a sticky white dumpling. This is made before New Year's and is eaten during the beginning of the year.

Mochi is made into a New Year's decoration called kagami mochi, formed from two round cakes of mochi with a tangerine (daidai) placed on top. The name daidai is supposed to be auspicious as it means "several generations".

The end of December and beginning of January on the Gregorian calendar is the busiest period of time for Daitōjin post offices. The Daitōjin have a custom of sending New Year's Postcards (年賀状, nengajō) to their friends and relatives, similar to the Occidental custom of sending Christmas cards. The original purpose was to give faraway friends and relatives news about oneself and their immediate family, often to tell those whom they did not often meet that they were alive and well.

Sending these cards is timed so that they arrive on the New Year. The post offices will guarantee delivery on that day if the cards are marked with the word nengajō and mailed from mid-december until a few days before the end of the year. To deliver them on time, the post office often hires students part-time.

It is tradition to refrain from sending a postcard when there has been a death in the family during that year. In this case, a family member sends a simple mourning postcard to inform friends and family that they should not send New Year's cards, out of respect for the deceased.

People often get their nengajō from various different sources. Stationers sell pre-printed cards. Most of these will have the Sinitic zodiac sign of the New Year as their design, conventional greetings, or both. the Sinitic zodiac has a cycle of 12 years. Each year is represented by an animal, with them being the following in order: the Rat, the Ox, the Tiger, the Rabbit, the Dragon, the Snake, the Horse, the Goat, the Monkey, the Rooster, the Dog, and the Pig. Famous anthropomorphic characters have seen heightened popularity during the years they are associated with.

Addressing is, generally speaking, done by hand, and is seen as an opportunity for an individual to demonstrate their handwriting. Postcards will usually have spaces for the sender to write a personal message. Blank cards are also available so that people can hand-write or draw their own cards. Rubber stamps with conventional messages and the annual animal are sold at department stores leading up to the New Years season, and many individuals will buy their own ink brushes for personal greetings. Special printing devices have, since the 90s, become popular, especially among those who practice crafts. In modern times, computer software allows for artists to create and print their own designs. Despite the omnipresence of email, the nengajō remains very popular, although the younger generation sends fewer cards than their predecessors. Rather, they prefer to exchange digital greetings via mobile phones, a practice which has gradually been accepted by society at large.

On New Years, Daitōjin people have a custom known as otoshidama, where adult relatives give money to children. It is handed out in small, decorated envelopes called pochibukuro, similar to Shūgi-bukuro and the Sinitic hóngbāo. In the Pre-Constitutional period, large stores and wealthy families would give out a small bag of mochi and a mandarin orange to "spread happiness all around". The amount of money given depends on the age of the child, but is usually the same if there is more than one child in order to avoid offending anyone. It is not uncommon for more than ¥4,000 (approximately US$50) to be given.

The New Year traditions are partially linked with poetry, including haiku (poems with 17 syllables consisting of lines of five, seven and five) and renga (linked poetry). All traditions above would be considered appropriate to include in haiku as kigo (season words). There are also haiku that celebrate the "first" of the New Year, such as the "first sun" (hatsuhi), "first laughter" (waraizome), and "first dream" (hatsuyume).

Along with the New Year's Day postcard, haiku might mention "first letter" (hatsudayori), "first calligraphy" (kakizome), and "first brush" (fude hajime).

It is customary to play many games on New Years. These include but are not limited to: hanetsuki, takoage (kite flying), koma (spinning top), sugoroku, fukuwarai, and karuta.

There are many shows created as the end-of-the-year and beginning-of-year entertainment, with some being a special edition of a regular show. For many decades, it has been customary to watch the popular TV show "Tansei Uta Gassen", which is aired on the national broadcast service, Daitō Hōsō Kyōkai (DHK) on New Year's Eve. The show features two teams, red and blue, made up of popular musicians who compete against each other.

The Final match of the Emperor's Cup, the national association football elimination tournament, occurs on New Year's Day. The finale has been timed so that it will always occur on the first New Moon of the year, which can, at least on the Gregorian calendar, make it appear to occur more than once a year. It is usually aired on DHK.

Mixed martial arts organizations have held events on New Year's Eve.

Coming of Age Day
Second Monday of January
Spoiler: Coming of Age Day • show
Coming of Age Day is a Daitōjin holiday held annually on the second Monday of January on the native calendar. It is held in order to congratulate and encourage all of those who have reached or will reach the age of maturity (18 years old) between 2 April of the previous year and 1 April of the current year, as well as to help them realize that they have become adults. Festivities include coming of age ceremonies held at local and prefectural offices, as well as after-parties among friends and families.

The Emperor's Birthday
19 January
Spoiler: Emperors Birthday • show
The Emperor's Birthday, or Tennō Tanjōbi (alternatively Tenchōsetsu), is an annual holiday of the Daitōjin calendar celebrating the birthday of the reigning Emperor, which is currently on the 19th of January.

On the Emperor's birthday, a public ceremony takes place at the Ashina Imperial Palace, where the gates are open (the palace is usually off-limits to the public). Typically, only the surrounding park can be visited. The Emperor, accompanied by the Empress (when there is one) and several other members of the Imperial Family appear on a palace balcony to acknowledge the birthday greetings of well-wishers waving Daitōjin flags. This event is called Ippan-sanga. Only on this occasion and during New Year's Celebrations are the public permitted to enter the inner grounds of the palace. The crowd is required to wait in a pre-established area between the main road and the building: at a later time, the Imperial Guard accompanies visitors, guiding them from the square in front of them to the inside of the building. Admission is free for those who wish to enter, and those who wish are given a small Daitōjin flag. Visitors will wait at the Nijubashi bridge until around 9:30 in the morning, when the Imperial Guard make a first group of people cross the bridge and enter a square below the Imperial pavilion. At around 10:20 am, the Emperor, accompanied by the Empress (or in cases where there is none, their closest female relative), as well as the heirs to the throne and their spouses look out from the pavilion, where the crowd below wishes the Emperor long life by repeating the word "banzai" in chorus.

Once this is done, the Emperor and his family retreats inside the palace and the process begins again. This is repeated several times throughout the day so that as many people as possible can pay homage to the Emperor. That evening, national television broadcasts a special, during which time the Emperor addresses a few words of thanks to the country and offers a prayer for peace and unity within the nation.

11 February
Spoiler: Kigen-setsu • show
Kigen-setsu, translated as Festival of the Accession of the First Emperor and the Foundation of the Empire or simply Accession Day, is an annual national holiday celebrating the enthronement of Shin'ō Tennō. The holiday was first adopted in the 1870s, where it was envisioned as a unifying celebration around the love of the Daitōjin people around their love for the god-emperor. Publicly linking his rule with the mythical first Emperor, Shin'ō, and thus with the gods Amaterasu and Takamimusubi, the Keiyo Emperor declared himself the one true ruler of Daitō. In modern times, the focus on the divinity of the Emperor has lessened to an extent through secularism. Despite this, it is considered a deeply Teidō holiday, at least on the mainland and in Tsukishima. In Styria, it is treated as a sort of National Day, though this perception also exists in other regions.

Vernal Prayer Day
Around 20 March
Spoiler: Vernal Prayer Day • show
The Vernal Prayer Day (Shun-ki Kōresai) is one of two official days of prayer. Despite being initially a purely Teidō "holiday" held to pay respects past Emperors and imperial family member as well as to pray for a good harvest, it has been adopted by members of other religions as a day of prayer in their own faiths.
« Last Edit: September 19, 2021, 09:51:21 PM by Daitō »

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Re: Civil Factbook of the Empire of Daitō
« Reply #31 on: August 26, 2021, 01:35:46 AM »
National Holidays of Daitō, Part Two

Armed Forces Day
17 April
Spoiler: Armed Forces Day • show
Armed Forces Day (軍隊記念日, Guntai Kinen'bi or 国軍の日, Kokugun no hi) is a public holiday commemorating the Battle of Kokura, when an outnumbered loyalist force of loyalist soldiers defeated the army of Haruyoshi Nishiōji, effectively ending the Tottori Rebellion. The holiday was established in 1953, replacing both Army Commemoration Day (陸軍記念日, Riku-gun Kinen'bi) and Navy Commemoration Day (海軍記念日, Kai-gun Kinen'bi) which were established in 1906.

Military Parade in Ashina, 2019
Armed Forces Day is best known for the Military Parades held throughout the nation, with the largest (and most prestigious) being held in Ashina. This parade is attended by His Majesty, the Emperor, as well as the Chancellor and when there is one, the Prime Minister.

Golden Week
4 - 7 June
Spoiler: Golden Week • show
Golden Week (黄金週間, Ōgon Shūkan) is a week from the 29th of April through early April containing a number of Daitōjin holidays. It is also known in Daitō as Ōgata Renkyū (大型連休, "Long holiday series"). The days between Keiyo Day and Greenery Day, as well as after Children's Day, are officially termed "Citizen's Holiday", though they themselves are not really a holiday. This is due to the practice of employers giving their employees a seven-day period off work to spend time with their families. Golden Week is the longest vacation period for many Daitōjin workers. The only other week-long holiday period is New Years.

Golden Week is a popular time for holiday travel. Due to significantly higher rates of travel, flights, trains, and hotels are often fully booked. Popular destinations for Daitōjin citizens to travel to during this period include Rokkenjima, Jiayuan, Floodwater, Continental Tytor, and Alba Karinya.
Keiyo Day
Keiyo Day (恵与の日, Keiyo no Hi) is a Daitōjin annual holiday held on June 4th. It honours the birthday of Emperor Keiyo, the reigning emperor from 1871 to 1932. "Keiyo" (恵与) means "blessing", while its individual syllables mean "Enlightenment" (恵) and "Bestow" (与), effectively meaning "Enlightened Rule".

The official purpose of Keiyo Day is, according to the Imperial Government, to encourage public reflection on the reign of the Keiyo Emperor, which saw the resurgence of the Empire as a cultural, political, economic, and military power capable of standing up to the Ardian Empire.
Greenery Day
Greenery Day (みどりの日, Midori no Hi)) is a national holiday in Daitō which, according to the Imperial Government, is intended encourage the appreciation of nature by the populace and to be thankful for its blessings. In practice, however, it is just seen as another day which expands the Daitōjin Golden Week vacation.
Children's Day
Children's Day (こどもの日, Kodomo no Hi) is a Daitōjin national holiday which takes place annually on 10 June and is the final celebration in Golden Week. It is a day which is set aside to respect children's personalities and to celebrate their happiness. It was designated a national holiday by the Daitōjin government in 1928. It has, however, been a day of celebration in Daitō since ancient times.

The day was formerly known as Tango no sekku (端午の節句) — one of the five annual ceremonies held at the Imperial court — and was celebrated roughly around the same time. Until 1928, it was known as Boy's Day, celebrating boys and recognizing fathers, as the counterpart to Hinamatsuri, or "Girl's day" on March 3rd. This was changed in 1928 to include both male and female children, as well as recognizing mothers alongside fathers and family qualities of unity.

On Children's Day, families will raise a koinobori, a carp-shaped windsock (this being due to the belief that a carp that swims upstream eventually becomes a dragon and will fly to the heavens; this was an imported tradition from what is now modern-day Jiayuan) which, when caught in the wind, looks like it is swimming. These windsocks will include the black carp, representing the father, at the top, followed by a red or pink carp representing the mother, and then one carp for each child in order of age. Usually, the ones for children will be blue, though sometimes there will also be green or orange. Families may also display a samurai doll, occasionally riding a large carp (representing the folk heroes Kintarō or Momotarō) and/or a traditional military helmet, kabuto, due to their traditional association as symbols of strength and vitality.
« Last Edit: August 29, 2021, 08:47:32 AM by Daitō »

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Re: Civil Factbook of the Empire of Daitō
« Reply #32 on: August 26, 2021, 01:41:44 AM »
National Holidays of Daitō, Part Three

Marine Day
Third Monday of July
Spoiler: Marine Day • show
Marine Day is a holiday which, according to the Imperial Government, is meant as a day of gratitude for the blessings of the oceans and hoping for the prosperity of Daitō.

Mountain Day
11 August
Spoiler: Mountain Day • show
Mountain Day is a holiday established in 2015 as a day on which to appreciate Daitō's mountains.

Respect for the Aged Day
Third Monday of September
Spoiler: Respect for the Aged Day • show
Respect for the Aged Day is a Daitōjin designated public holiday celebrated annually to honour elderly citizens. It started in 1957 as a national holiday and has been held on the third monday of September ever since. On this holiday, Daitōjin media will take the opportunity to feature the elderly, reporting on the population and highlighting the oldest people in the country.

On this holiday, people will return home and pay respect to their elders. Some people will volunteer in neighborhoods by making and distributing free lunch boxes to older citizens. Entertainment will be provided by teenagers and children with various performances. Special television programs are also featured by Daitōjin media on this holiday.

Autumnal Prayer Day
Around 23 September
Spoiler: Autumnal Equinox Day • show
Autumnal Prayer Day (Shū-ki Kōresai) is one of two official days of prayer. Despite being initially a purely Teidō "holiday" held to pay respects past Emperors and imperial family member as well as to offer a prayer of thanks for a good harvest, it has been adopted by members of other religions as a day of prayer in their own faiths.
« Last Edit: September 09, 2021, 09:38:12 PM by Daitō »

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Re: Civil Factbook of the Empire of Daitō
« Reply #33 on: August 26, 2021, 01:42:15 AM »
National Holidays of Daitō, Part Four

Health and Sports Day
Second Monday of October
Spoiler: Health and Sports Day • show
Health and Sports day is a national holiday held annually on the second Monday in October. It commemorates the Pan-Imperial games held until the 1990s and exists to promote sports and an active lifestyle.

Pictured: A cycling event for Health and Sports Day in 2011

Culture Day
3 November
Spoiler: Culture Day • show
Culture Day is a national holiday held annually in Daitō on November 3 for the purpose of promoting culture, the arts, and academic endeavour. Festivities include art exhibitions, parades, and award ceremonies for distinguished artists and scholars.

Culture Day dancers, 2014

Culture day was first celebrated in 1949.

Remembrance Day
11 November
Spoiler: Remembrance Day • show
Remembrance Day commemorates the end of the Great War on November 11th, 1945. It is a day of solemn reflection on the blood shed for the nation and her people, both on its own soil and abroad. An armistice was signed on the 11th of November, 1945 at around 5:20 AM AST, with hostilities formally ending at 11:00 AM. Despite this, the war would, at least for the Empire of Daitō, not formally end until the 16th of May, 1946 with the signing of the treaty of Ashina.

Remembrance day is often celebrated with a parade by veterans of the Armed Forces as well as a moment of silence held at 11:00 AM.

Chancellor Heishi Day
17 December
Spoiler: Chancellor Heishi Day • show
Chancellor Heishi day is a public holiday which celebrates the life of Chancellor Eiji Himekawa, often referred to as Chancellor Heishi in life. He was the man who led Daitō through the first phase of the Great War and who headed the nation's constitutional convention. He played a role in establishing much of the Imperial Government, which has led to him being viewed as the "Father of the Nation" by many. So important was he that the Teidō faith's Grand Shrine in Oshima formally enshrined him, deifying him as "Kokusei no kami".

Despite being a national holiday, it is considered controversial in Styria as, despite his own objections to integration, he was Chancellor when the Empire annexed the region. Despite all of that, it has slowly lost its controversial status, with only a few protests occurring each year.
« Last Edit: August 29, 2021, 09:32:46 AM by Daitō »

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Re: Civil Factbook of the Empire of Daitō
« Reply #34 on: August 30, 2021, 03:36:00 AM »
Shinkyō, the Imperial Capital

Shinkyō skyline
The City of Shinkyō (新京, New Capital), also known as Ashina (芦品) and officially as Shinkyō Metropolis (東京都, Shinkyō-to), is the capital of and largest prefecture in the Empire of Daitō. It is the largest urban are on the planet, with a population of approximately 19.8 million people, as well as one of the most populous metropolitan areas. Despite frequently being called a city, the area that is generally referred to as Shinkyō is really made up of 28 wards (a special form of municipality), various bed towns in the southeast, and a few islands in the Kynean Sea.

Originally a trading port known as Ashina (named for the region), the city grew rapidly in the 13th century before the Imperial Capital was moved to the city in the 15th century. The city was renamed in 1479 to Shinkyō, when the Seat of the Emperor moved there following the interregnum. In 1877, with the establishments of the prefectural system, it was designated as "Shinkyō Prefecture", eventually being reorganized as the "Shinkyō Metropolis" in 1941.
Wards of Shinkyō
Spoiler: Wards • show
Notes: Isahaya is the most populated and second largest ward of Shinkyō.
Notes: Hyakuashi is the second most populated ward of Shinkyō.

Pictured: Hyakuashi-ku skyline
Notes: Shiraizumi is a major commercial and financial hub in Daitō. It hosts one of the busiest railway stations in the world, that being Shiraizumi station.

Pictured: an entrance to Tsunohazu-chō, a famous entertainment district in Shiraizumi
Notes: Toba is, by land-area, the largest ward of Shinkyō.
Notes: Komoda is well known for its traditional architecture, which has been allowed to flourish (though with fire safety measures undertaken) uninterrupted. In a way, it offers a brief glimpse into Daitō's past.

Pictured: A neighborhood in Komoda-ku
Notes:Sendō is the smallest ward by population, instead being mostly designated as the seat of the Government. It is located in the center of Shinkyō and is where the Emperor and his family resides.
« Last Edit: September 04, 2021, 08:42:03 PM by Daitō »

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Re: Civil Factbook of the Empire of Daitō
« Reply #35 on: September 09, 2021, 03:32:59 AM »
Political Parties of the Empire of Daitō

Despite the Imperial Diet being dissolved in June of 2021, there remain many political parties within the Empire. Listed below are these parties as well as some additional information on their background and their general positions.
Liberal Democratic Party
The Liberal Democratic Party (自由民主党, Jiyū-Minshutō), often frequently abbreviated to LDP or Jimintō, is a conservative political party in Daitō. The party was formed as a merger of the Daitō Democratic Party and Liberal party in 1949 and has frequently been in conflict with the Constitutional Democratic Party and the Teikokutō in various forms since its inception. Generally speaking, the LDP has seen significant success in elections since its founding, though it saw its popularity decline going into the 2010s, though it won the Premiership twice in that time and held it four times since 2010 thanks to the crisis at the end of 2020. The party is currently de-facto led by Jin Himekawa.

The LDP has multiple factions which can be divided into three major wings:
   • Domestic Unity Council (国内統一評議会, Kokunai tōitsu hyōgi-kai) - A pro-classical economics, nationalist, and conservative wing. Fmr. Prime Minister and ex-Party Leader Eita Fukumoto was a member of the KTHK from 2014 to 2018, after which he joined the Nanaikekai. Former Prime Ministers Eijiro Fujie and Arinobu Chizawa were formerly the leaders of the KKHK as well before breaking with the party. It is currently the largest faction of the LDP. In terms of its views on foreign powers, it is generally neutral, though it views further integration into the CSTO and CSU as potentially beneficial, albeit with great caution. It is currently led by Fmr. Prime Minister Jin Himekawa.
   • Chōwa Research Council (調和研究評議会, Chōwa kenkyū hyōgi-kai - A Keynesian, Right-liberal and Pro-Isolationist wing. The CKHK is currently led by Rep. Daisuke Hayata, a senior politician within the House of Representatives.
   • Nanaikekai (七池会) - A wing of the party which in many ways is a mix of the other two, the Nanaikekai are known for their support of Keynesian economic policy but also their nationalism and conservatism. The party is known to be open to pursuing closer relations with the nations of Midaranye, which it views as generally beneficial for the nation. It was formerly led by Fmr. Prime Minister Eita Fukumoto, though following his coup attempt, the wing has lost a large amount of its membership.

The LDP has often been described as a sort of "catch all" party for the nation's conservatives. Generally speaking, however, the parties ideology is one of conservatism, monarchism, and Daitōjin nationalism. In many ways, the party descends from the Great-War era "Government of National Salvation" founded in 1943 before being disestablished in 1948, with its logo even being taken from that government.
Constitutional Democratic Party
The Constitutional Democratic Party (立憲民主党, Rikken-minshutō is a socially liberal and progressive political party in Daitō which advocates for constitutionalism. It is led by Fmr. Prime Minister Ikumi Edano, who is also the head of the largest faction in the party.

The Rikken-minshutō is the latest iteration of the Minshutō (民主党), which broke off from the DDP in the 1940s out of protest over its merger with the Liberal Party. It has two major factions within it which are as follows:
   • the Centrists (中道政治, Chūdōseiji) - The Chūdōseiji is the largest faction of the Rikken-minshutō made up of, as the name suggests, mostly centrist members. It is a moderate group which is led by Fmr. Prime Minister Ikumi Edano.
   • the Progressives (進歩, Shinpo) - The Shinpo are the smaller of the main factions of the Rikken-minshutō and the main progressive wing. It has seen its membership grow in recent years, though it seems unlikely that they will be able to challenge the Chūdōseiji anytime soon. It is led by Rep. Akihito Rokouda.
The Teikokutō (帝国党) is a right-wing monarchist party in Daitō. Founded in 1921, it is one of the oldest political parties within the Empire and is currently led by Rep. Saigo Wakabayashi. The party is divided into two wings, those being the constitutionalists, who advocate for the maintenance of the status-quo, and the absolutists, who seek to restore the Emperor's power in the government to what they were before 1899.
Daitōjin Communist Party
Founded in 1927, the Daitōjin Communist Party (大東共産党, Daitō Kyōsantō) is a left-wing to far-left political party in the Empire of Daitō. The DCP advocates for the establishment of a society based on scientific socialism, communism, democracy, and international cooperation. It proposes to achieve its objectives within a democratic framework while struggling against what it describes as "imperialism and its subordinate ally, monopoly capital." The party does not advocate violent revolution, instead proposing a "democratic revolution" to achieve "democratic change in politics and the economy" and in the last year "the complete restoration of Daitō's national sovereignty", which it views as infringed upon by the nation's membership in the CSTO.

Despite initially being opposed to the existence of the monarchy, the party has, since 1956, accepted that the Monarch is a symbol of the state, often falling in line with the Rikken-minshutō in this regard. In many ways, the DCP has been referred to as a "Monarcho-Communist" or "Monarcho-Socialist" party, believing that the monarchy should only be disestablished if such a move is supported by the people, which is not presently the case and seems unlikely to be for a long, long time. The DCP is currently led by Kazuo Sakai.

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Re: Civil Factbook of the Empire of Daitō
« Reply #36 on: September 15, 2021, 12:02:26 PM »

There are a total of 68 prefectures spanning two continents within the Empire of Daitō. These prefectures are as follows:
Mainland Daitō
1.) Shinkyō2.) Ashina3.) Kitami
4.) Tenkyō5.) Fukui6.) Oita
7.) Oyama8.) Iwate9.) Saga
10.) Aomori11.) Mikurai12.) Aoga
13.) Sado14.) Ama15.) Chibu
16.) Nagato17.) Ishikari18.) Awara
19.) Gunma20.) Ehime21.) Aso
22.) Nakatane23.) Sukumo24.) Yaizu
25.) Nasu26.) Komoro
27.) Ueno28.) Fukaya29.) Omachi
30.) Komaki31.) Tsuruga32.) Wakasa
33.) Asago34.) Hidaka35.) Nichinan
36.) Maniwa37.) Shobara38.) Akiota
39.) Kure40.) Teshio41.) Yashiro
42.) Yuzawa43.) Kihoku44.) Taiki
45.) Muroran46.) Otobe47.) Shintoku
48.) Kiyosato49.) Ashoro50.) Sagami
51.) Kunashiri52.) Rumoi
53.) Tsukishima54.) Otaru55.) Mitane
56.) Ghegam57.) Vedi
58.) Styria59.) Fulda60.) Harz
61.) Illtal62.) Vogtland63.) Kreuzeck
64.) Lavanttal65.) Seckau66.) Feistritz
67.) Ennsland68.) Leithaland

Spoiler: Maps • show
Map of Mainland Daitō

Map of Tsukishima

Map of Styria
« Last Edit: September 19, 2021, 11:34:14 AM by Daitō »

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Re: Civil Factbook of the Empire of Daitō
« Reply #37 on: October 01, 2021, 01:16:22 AM »
On the Emperor of Daitō

The Emperor of Daitō is by law the Head of State of the Empire of Daitō and the Head of the Imperial Clan. He or she who holds the position has a three-fold role as the Head of State, Head of the Teidō faith, and Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Military. Historically, the title of Tennō has never included a territorial designation as is the case with many other monarchies. This is because the position of Emperor is territorially-independent—the emperor is the emperor, even if he has followers only in one province (as was the case in the 15th century.

Addressing and Naming
There are two Daitōjin words equivalent to the English word "emperor": Tennō (天皇, Heavenly Sovereign), which is used exclusively to refer to the Emperor of Daitō, and Kōtei (皇帝). Sumeramikoto ("the Imperial Person") was also used in Old Daitōjin. The term tennō was first adopted in the late 7th century and has consistently remained in use ever since. In English, the term mikado, literally meaning "the honorable gate" (i.e. the gate of the Imperial Palace), is occasionally used as a synecdoche for the Emperor, though its use has waned.

Traditionally, the Daitōjin considered it disrespectful to refer to someone not within their immediate family (or in rare cases, people who have formed a very tight bond) by their given name, and especially for a person of noble rank. While this convention has slightly relaxed in the modern age, it is still inadvisable among friends to use the given name, use of the family name being the common form of address instead. In the case of the imperial family, it is considered extremely inappropriate to use their given name. An Emperor's era name can change throughout their reign, although it is rare for an Emperor to change it more than once in their lifetime. Their posthumous name will always the same as the last era during which they presided. This, however, was not always the case, and the posthumous name of an Emperor used to be picked separately from their era names until the reign of Emperor Keiyo.

The current Emperor on the throne is typically referred to as Tennō Heika (天皇陛下, "His (Imperial) Majesty the Emperor"), Kinjō Heika (今上陛下, "His Current Majesty") or simply Tennō when speaking Daitōjin. The previous Emperor, Antei Tennō, received the title Daijō Tennō (太上天皇, Emperor Emeritus), often shortened to Jōko (上皇), upon his abdication and prior to his death. After his assassination, he was renamed to Antei Tennō and is referred to strictly as that in Daitōjin. The title Ame-no-shita shiroshimesu ōkimi (治天下大王, Grand King who rules all under Heaven), while used mostly internally, is one of the oldest titles still used to refer to the Emperor, in this form as a religious title drawing comparison to the both the gods and to the earliest emperors. It should be noted that, while the title "Grand King" is not used by the Emperor in normal circumstances, it is viewed as being of equivalent rank to the primary imperial title.

Origin of the Title
Originally, the ruler of Daitō was known as either 北見大王/大君 (Kitami-ōkimi, Grand King of Kitami) or 治天下大王 (Ame-no-shita shiroshimesu ōkimi, Grand King who rules all under Heaven); of these two, the latter of them persisted into the modern day, both of which are recorded in Daitōjin and foreign sources before the 7th century. By the 7th century, the title of 天子 (Tenshi, Emperor/Son of Heaven) can be found in a diplomatic document sent from Emperor Go-Ōgimachi to Lijiang in 627, where he introduced himself as 日出處天子 (Hi izurutokoro no tenshi), meaning "Emperor of the Land where the Sun Rises" in reference to his realm's position relative to the Middle Kingdom. The oldest documented use of the title 天皇 (Tennō, heavenly sovereign) is on a wooden slat, or mokkan, that was unearthed in Kitami prefecture in 1992 which dated back to the reign of Emperor Suizei in the late 7th century.

Marriage Traditions
Throughout history, Daitōjin emperors and noblemen appointed a spouse to the position of chief wife rather than just keeping a harem or an assortment of female attendants. The Daitōjin Imperial Dynasty consistently practiced official polygamy until the Go-Kaiyō Period (1843 - 1871). Besides his empress, the emperor could take, and nearly always took, several secondary consorts of various hierarchical degrees. Concubines were also allowed to other dynasts (Shinnōke, Ōke). After a decree by Emperor Kazan (976 - 1011), some emperors even had two empresses simultaneously (identified by the separate titles kōgō and chūgū). As a result of this practice of polygamy, the imperial clan could produce more offspring, thus helping to lessen the risk of the lineage dying out. It should be noted that sons by secondary consorts were usually also recognized as imperial princes and as such, a son could be recognized as heir to the throne if the empress did not give birth to an heir.

Of the six reigning empresses of Daitō, none married or gave birth after ascending to the throne. Some of them, being widows, had produced children before their reigns. The reign of Empress Tokui (1568 - 1593) set the precedent of non-dynastic heirs being barred from taking the throne, this being a result of her matrilineal marriage into Clan Heishi. In succession, outside of cases where the celestial throne would pass to someone not in the Imperial clan, the children of an empress were preferred over sons of secondary consorts. Thus, it was significant which quarters had preferential opportunities of providing chief wives to imperial princes, or rather, providing future empresses.

Daitōjin monarchs have been, as much as others elsewhere, dependent on making alliances with powerful chiefs and with other monarchs. Many such alliances were sealed by marriages, although in Daitō it was, save for one instance, only among the Daitōjin nobility. In Daitō, such marriages soon became incorporated as elements of tradition which controlled the marriages of later generations, though the original practical alliance had lost its original meaning. For a time between the 7th and 10th centuries, a practice developed where an imperial son-in-law would find himself under the influence of his non-imperial father-in-law.

Throughout the entire history of the Daitōjin Empire, a reigning emperor would not take a wife from outside of the noble class; it was quite controversial when Emperor Kasei married into the Ardian Gabina Family, the only time when an Emperor married into a family not of Daitōjin, Rokkenjiman, or Toshikawan origin. Thus, one could imagine the sort of controversy that a marriage to a commoner might've caused. As a result, the Emperors frequently married a member of the extended family of one of the Grand Dukes of the Empire, if not a lesser noble family. The Keiyo-era Imperial House Law of 1891 made the prohibition of marriage into to a commoner all but explicit. A clause of this law stipulated that brides of Clan Heishi and Satomi, as well as those born to the Imperial Clan itself, were preferred.

The Origins of the Daitōjin imperial dynasty are obscure, and it bases its position on the claim that it has "reigned since time immemorial". There are no records of an emperor who was not said to have been a descendent other, yet earlier emperors. What is known for certain, however, is that the family is quite venerable, with the earliest absolutely confirmed emperor or at least a title comparable to it being with Emperor Go-Kōbun in 74 BC.

Millennia ago, the Daitōjin imperial family developed its own peculiar system of hereditary succession. While it has always de-facto been primogenitural, it was until the 17th century by law officially non-primogenitural, more or less agnatic, and based on appointment by the previous emperor. Today, Daitō uses strict agnatic primogeniture, a system which it adopted from Ardia.

Historically, succession to the Celestial Throne has always passed to descendants in male line from the imperial lineage. Generally, they have been males, though over the reign of ninety monarchs, there have been six women as emperor.

Article 2 of the Go-Tenshi Constitution (the Constitution of the Empire of Daitō) states, "The Imperial Throne shall be succeeded to by Imperial male descendants, according to the provisions of the Imperial House Law." This provision is a holdover from the 1899 Keiyo Constitution, although there are now efforts to amend it to permit non-agnatic succession in cases where a male heir is not available. In the event of a complete failure of the main line, the throne would pass to the nearest collateral branch, again in the male line. If the Empress did not give birth to an heir, an Emperor could and still can legally take a concubine, and the son he had by her would be recognized as the heir to the throne. So far, that has not happened, and it seems unlikely that such a scenario would occur.

Burial Traditions
Prior to the formal proclamation of the Empire of Daitō, so-called "archaic funerals" were held for dead emperors, but only funerary rites from the end of the period, which the chronicles describe in more detail, are known. They were centered around the rite of mogari (殯), a provisional depository between death and permanent burial.

From the Reign of Emperor Shinwa to Emperor Kazan (715 - 1011) and from the reign of Emperor Kaitei to Emperor Meishu (1558 - 1662), the Emperor was cremated upon his death. In all other periods, the Emperor was laid to rest in a mausoleum built near the start of their reign. All Emperors have been buried in and around Tenkyō, the ancestral seat of the Empire and a de-facto second capital even into the modern day.

Imperial Regalia
The following items are considered the Imperial Regalia of the Empire of Daitō:
Imperial Crown of Daitō (12th Century)
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Pictured: A reproduction of the crown
The "Imperial Crown of Daitō" is one of two Imperial Crowns considered a part of the Nation's imperial regalia. It has been considered lost after the assassination of Emperor Fukugen in 1688. The crown would, after that time, find its way into Ardia. It is here that it was last known to have been located, having disappeared from a museum in the nation a few years before the end of the Great War. As of 2021, it still remains lost.

The crown is made in the Juhian style, having been made by a craftsman from there as tribute for the Emperor of Daitō in the 12th century. It is documented as having been roughly 19 centimeters in diameter and 44 centimeters in height. There were two parts of it, an inner cap and the actual crown itself. The crown proper is made of three tree-like branches which have three branches each. The character 出 is written three times on the head band. Additionally, the outer headband has two antler-like protrusions on the left and right; these protrusions are covered in jade and glass beads as well as mirrors which hang from them. On each side of the headband, there are two golden chains with leaf-like decorations ending in jade beads.

It is said that it was designed to catch the sunlight, creating a dazzling spectacle that would simultaneously make it difficult for a man to look upon the Emperor and to emphasize the imperial connection to the sun goddess, Amaterasu-Ōmikami.

Imperial Crown of Daitō (9th century)
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The Crowns made starting in the 9th century are the older of the two Imperial crowns and the only ones currently still in the possession of the Imperial Family. They bear similarities to Sinitic crowns, primarily within their shape and general look. However, they are distinguished by the featuring of Yatagerasu, the legendary three-legged crow guide of the first Emperor, Emperor Shin'ō, on the visage of the rising sun. While they are not used anymore, the crowns remain important parts of the regalia, albeit secondary to the next three. It should be noted that, due to the materials it was made of, it is not the original, with the "9th century" designation rather referring to the style it is made in. The one currently seen as the most important of these crowns was made during the reign of Emperor Go-Kaiyō (1843 - 1871).

Ame no Murakumo no Tsurugi
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Emperor Shihō and the Heavenly Sword of Gathering Clouds
Ame no Murakumo no Tsurugi (天叢雲剣, "Heavenly Sword of Gathering Clouds")'s history extends into legend. According to Kojiki, the god Susanoo encountered a grieving family of kunitsukami ("gods of the land") in Ashina Province. When he inquired of Ashinazuchi, he told him that the fearsome Yamata no Orochi, an eight-headed serpent who had consumed seven of the family's daughters and that it was coming for the last. The storm god thusly vowed to slay the beast in exchange for said daughter's hand in marriage, and would thusly slay the beast. After the battle, he would discover the sword within the dragon's body, which he would present to the sun god in order to settle an old grievance.

The sword would eventually be passed down to the Imperial family, where it remains in its possession to this day. The sword is believed to believed, based on the name, to be a tsurugi-type of straight, double-edged sword and was likely forged some time between the fifth and ninth centuries. Due to its divinity and Teidō tradition, nobody save for the Emperor and the High Priest of the Oshima Grand Shrine are permitted to see it and as a result, the exact shape and condition of the sword has not been confirmed. It made its most recent appearance in 2020 with the accession of the Reigning Emperor to the throne. It, alongside the jewel Yasakani no Magatama, the Emperor's privy seal, and the state seal, were kept shrouded in packages. The sword is said to represent "valour" among the three sacred treasures.

Yata no Kagami
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An artist's impression of the mirror
Yata no Kagami is a sacred mirror that is part of the Imperial regalia of Daitō. It is said to be housed in the Idai Grand Shrine in Idai Prefecture, although a lack of public access makes this supremely difficult to verify. It is said to represent "wisdom" or "honesty", depending on the source. Mirrors in ancient Daitō represented truth as they merely reflected what was shown, and were thus a source of much mystique and reverence (being uncommon items). It is said that it, alongside the Yasakani no Magatama, were hung from a tree in order to lure the sun goddess out of a cave. It was given to Amaterasu's grandson, Ninigi-no-Mikoto, when he went to pacify Daitō, after which they would go on to become a part of the imperial regalia. There are rumors that the mirror may have been irrevocably lost in a fire that swept through its compartment in the 13th century. Whether it was lost or not, it is still said to be housed in the shrine.

Yasakani no Magatama
Yasakani no Magatama is one of the three sacred treasures of Daitō. Of the three, it is the only one stored at the Imperial palace, being held in the Kashiko-dokoro, the central shrine of the Three Palace Sanctuaries in Shinkyō, and it is used in the enthronement ceremony of the Emperor of Daitō.

The Yasakani no Magatama is believed by scholars to be the only of the three sacred treasures to remain in its original form, as is attested by the 1932 paper Daitōjin Enthronement Ceremonies; with an account of the Imperial Regalia; post-war scholarship has supported this claim. Replicas of the sword and mirror were likely made in the 9th century as a precaution, with the actual Ame no Murakumo no Tsurugi and Yata no Kagami being in too poor of a state to actually be used in the enthronement ceremony.

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Re: Civil Factbook of the Empire of Daitō
« Reply #38 on: October 19, 2021, 03:50:44 PM »
History of Daitō, Part One — Pre-History to the Kofun Period
I. Pre-Historic Daitō

The earliest human inhabitants of the Daitōjin subcontinent have been traced to prehistoric times around 82,000 BCE. The Sumi-Hori (角彫り) period, named for the distinctive carved tools found in this period, was followed by the Choshi people in the late second millennium BCE when new inventions were introduced from further along the coast. This period ended with the development of an early writing system in Daitō in the 7th century BCE.

Pre-historic Daitō saw the rise of the first "city"-states (really just a series of large villages) in the region, originally founded by the Sumihori peoples who are now believed to be relatives of the modern Daitōjin as a result of interbreeding between various populations. These peoples are believed to have existed as a culture in one form or another from approximately 10,500 to 400 BCE, or a period of just over 10,000 years. While these groups are often labeled as the same thing, it should be understood that, just as in the modern day, cultures varied quite significantly, and in many cases more than now thanks to the relative isolation that each tribe might've lived in. This leads to yet another misconception, that being that the various pre-Daitōjin tribes were entirely isolated, but to save time, in summary the Sumihori, while less connected than modern civilization, still had ties to each other for the purpose of trade and defense.

II. The Sumi-Hori Period

An Yezo clan leader, c.1904

The Sumihori were ostensibly a distantly related ethnic group to the Kumaso peoples of Azukishima, believed to have originally migrated overland from what is now continental Rokkenjima around 10,500 BCE. Once the dominant population in the subcontinent, at their height it was believed they had a population of around 200,000 in around 5000 BCE, although by the end of the Sumi-Hori period, it likely dropped to around 100,000. Despite writing having existed for nearly 200 years before the end of this period, very little is known about the eponymous peoples that doesn't come from archaeology.

It is known that the Sumihori never developed agriculture on their own, instead living a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. Despite this, the prevalence of pottery, which is heavy, bulky, and too fragile for such a lifestyle, indicates a sedentary lifestyle not conducive to a hunter-gatherer society. Scholars now believe that, at least until the arrival of the Choshi, these Sumihori peoples practiced a semi-nomadic lifestyle. With the arrival of the Choshi, they would transition into a fully sedentary lifestyle, adopting agriculture and building larger settlements until the 400s, when those that remained either stayed and assimilated into the growing Daitōjin culture or traveled into the mountains to become what would be the Ebisu and later Yezo.

III. The Choshi and Kofun Periods

A Choshi-period Dōtaku Bell, c.710 BCE

The Choshi and Kofun periods were a pair of eras spanning from approximately 900 BCE until 290 CE, with it being roughly contemporary with the Classical era. The former period, the Choshi period, spanned a period of roughly 610 years from around 900 to 284 BCE, with the Kofun period lasting from 284 BCE until 290 CE. Despite this, many elements of both eras continued beyond each other's eras, with a notable example being the eponymous kofun of the Kofun period being built until the early 6th century. Thusly, the pentarchical era is often referred to as the "Later Kofun Period" by scholars.

IIIa. The Choshi Period

A Choshi period jar, c.619 BCE

The Choshi period is a period of time spanning from the 10th to the early 3rd centuries BCE. It is concurrent with the later part of the Sumi-Hori period and saw the migration of the Kumaso (proposed ancestors of the Daitōjin, Rokkenjimans, and Toshikawans) into the subcontinent. These ancient Daitōjin were likely the first agricultural society in the territory that would become the Empire and were, by the 8th century, making frequent use of iron tools. Despite this, bronze would remain in use for ceremonial implements such as the characteristic Dōtaku bells and mirrors. Bronze weapons would remain in use in some areas until the 4th century BCE.

IIIb. The Sengoku Jidai

A Haniwa in the form of a Warrior, c.260 BCE

The Sengoku Jidai (Warring States Period), not to be confused with similarly named periods in other nations, was a period of social upheaval and military conflict in Daitō spanning from the late Choshi to the Mid-Kofun Periods. Generally speaking, the period began somewhere around 540 BCE, although scholars now debate as to whether it should be considered as having ended in 284 with the founding of Kitami or in 6 BCE with the founding of Sagami.

The Sengoku period saw the consolidation of the disparate Daitōjin states into a collection of five semi-independent states, those being as follows in order of their founding:
   • Kitami (284 BCE)
   • Ishikari (178 BCE)
   • Teshio (128 BCE)
   • Hidaka (53 BCE)
   • Sagami (6 BCE)

While there was no true "victor" of this age of turmoil, it led to, in a way, the first inklings of a unified Daitōjin state, although for nearly the next 700 years, the various states would swing from infighting to being all but a "unified" feudal state. It was in this period that the earliest traceable form of a united Teidō faith would come into existence, as well as when the first historically verifiable Emperor, Richū, would reign, although he would not have held the title of Emperor at this time. Emperor Richū abdicated in 81 BCE, although he would once again reign from 74 to 61 BCE as Emperor Go-Kōbun, serving as a regent for his grandson, Emperor Tenmu. It should also be noted that, while he was the first absolutely confirmed "Emperor" on the traditional order of succession, it is considered likely that an earlier Emperor, Emperor Kōgen (284 - 238 BCE) also existed as the first King of Kitami.

This period of time, while seeing the early rise of what would become the Imperial Family, would also see the rise of another important name, that being the Heishi of Ishikari. Clan Heishi, known for the Himekawa "Cadet Branch", as foreigners are oft to equivalate with it, would lead Ishikari throughout the early Imperial Period and continue to hold influence in the Empire to this very day, although only through this Himekawa branch.

Eventually, the Sengoku period would come to an end, and so too would peace be restored. Yet despite this, tension among the five states of what would become known as the Pentarchy continued to simmer just beneath the surface. Eventually, it would become necessary for one of the states to prove its dominance over the others, the only question that remained being "Who?"

IIIc. The Kofun Period

A Kofun in Oyama Prefecture

The Kofun period is named for the famed Kofun, megalithic tombs or tumuli which became relatively commonplace in East Ardia around this time period. Spanning from 284 BCE to 290 CE, it lasted through the latter half of the Sengoku period and saw the rise of the five Daitōjin states which would eventually form the Empire. While writing did exist before this period, it was mostly used in a theological context. Rather, in this period, writing became somewhat more commonplace, though nowhere near as much as in later eras. As a result, studies of this era still rely heavily on archaeology since the chronology of historical sources tends to be distorted.

The end of this era saw the state of Kitami bring the other states of Daitō to heel, with the ruler of the territory, starting with what is now considered Emperor Ōgimachi taking for himself the title of Ōkimi, or Great King and establishing a sort of proto-feudal system of tributary states. It is with the reign of Emperor Ōgimachi that some scholars consider the birth of the Empire to have occurred. His taking of the title of Ōkimi generally marks the end of this era in Daitōjin history, although technically the Kofun period would continue another two-hundred years.
« Last Edit: December 18, 2021, 08:52:14 AM by Daitō »

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Re: Civil Factbook of the Empire of Daitō
« Reply #39 on: October 19, 2021, 03:51:59 PM »
History of Daitō, Part Two — Classical Daitō
I. An overview of Classical Daitō
Classical Daitōjin history covers a period from 290 to 1042, during which time the Empire of Daitō was generally decentralized. It is divided into three periods, those being the Suzaki, Taishi, and Heijō periods, and can also be divided based on the title used by the lords of Kitami, with the title of Ame-no-shita shiroshimesu ōkimi being the primary title used before 627 and the Tenshi and later Tennō being used after.

It was in this time period that many important works of writing were first produced, such as the religious texts known as the Kojiki, Daitō Shoki, as well as the various anthologies of poetry such as the Man'yōshū, Kokin Wakashū, and what may be one of, if not the world's first novel, the Genji monogatari.
II. The Suzaki Period

Layout of Itabuki Palace (371 - 413)

The Suzaki Period, named for the village of Suzaki in the Kashihara district of Kitami Prefecture, is the earliest period of Classical Daitōjin history, lasting frrom 290 until 690. This period saw the Kitami polity, which had forced the other Daitōjin states to acknowledge its primacy, evolve greatly, which in turn led to the other states also developing further. This period is marked by its significant artistic, social, and political transformations; these had their origins in the late Kofun period, which in some ways extended into this period. The Suzaki period is also distinguished as being the period in which the name of the country changed from Akitsukuni to Daitō.
IIa. Origins of Modern Writing

A 13th Century copy of the Kojiki, written entirely in Kanji
The Suzaki period saw the introduction of Sinitic characters in Daitō. While initially introduced in the first century CE, they did not supplant the local script until the mid-5th century, this being due to the language of Court and of the nobility being sinitic in nature. For the most part, until the fifth century, the populace remained by and large illiterate, with the native script having long been relegated for religious function before it too died out.

Starting in the fifth century, Sinitic characters would begin to be used to write in Daitōjin, with this system going on to be known as Kanji. This writing system, while remaining in use to the modern day, also led to the creation of various syllabic scripts, owing to the nature of Kanji not being the most well-suited to the Daitōjin language. The first of these kana scripts, Man'yōgana, appeared as early as the seventh century, although it is likely older, and was the first attempt to represent Daitōjin phonetically and in a manner that was easier to teach. Despite being the first, it would mostly die out by the 10th century, being replaced by Hiragana and Katakana, which were considerably easier to learn for the common man and more convenient in most circumstances for the nobility. Man'yōgana would persist as a poetic form of writing until some time in the 19th century.
IIb. The First Emperor

Emperor Go-Ōgimachi
While the Imperial Household Association continues to hold that Emperor Shin'ō was the first Emperor of Daitō, modern historians consider Emperor Suizei the first actual Emperor, having been the first to hold the title of Tennō. Despite that, a strong case exists for Emperor Go-Ōgimachi, who reigned from 611 to 654 CE, being the first true Emperor of Daitō, albeit not in the unified sense that we know it today. Rather, Go-Ōgimachi's reign saw the adoption of the title of Tenshi, or "Son of Heaven", as the primary title of the ruler of Kitami. It was also in his reign that the Taika reforms were pushed through, although those will be discussed in the next section.

IIb-1. The Taika Reforms
The Taika Reforms (大化の改新, "Taika no Kaishin, Reformation of Taika"), named for the Taika Era (in those days, an Emperor would have multiple eras in their lifetime), were a set of doctrines established by Emperor Go-Ōgimachi in the year 642. They were written after the Battle of Umaji, which itself led to the establishment of a semi-unified realm in Daitō (although it closely resembled a confederation in which the Lords of the various states owed their loyalty to the soon-to-be Emperor). The Taika Era is often translated as the "Era of Great Reform" or "Era of Great Change", and lasted from 642 until Emperor Go-Ōgimachi's death in 654. While the Taika Reforms are named for the era name, they continued to be made until the 8th century.

The Reforms began with a major land reform, based on Confucian ideals from the Sinosphere, but the true aim of these reforms was to bring about greater centralization and to enhance the power of the Imperial Court and by extension, the State of Kitami within Daitō. For example, the nation would be reorganized into five "circuits", with any minor states being absorbed by them. Officially, clan-held lands would be given willingly by the clans to the government, with these territories being administered by specially appointed governors. In practice, however, these governors were the same as the lords who had previously given up their land, a failing of the system brought on by significant pushback to the reforms. Other reforms were implemented to varying degrees, but would largely be repealed by the 11th century.

Militarily speaking, the reforms would establish a national military not bound to the local lords but to the central governments of the circuits and later, in the 11th century, the Imperial Government. The Empire was militarily divided into commanderies, each of which was assigned a general (usually hailing from a local clan) who would organize and train troops for the campaigns made by the government. This would, ultimately, be phased out in the 14th century as Imperial authority waned before once more being reimplemented during the reign of Emperor Tōitsu in the 1480s before once more being reformed in the 1880s as the Empire began to exert further influence beyond its colonies.
III. The Taishi Period
The Taishi period was an era from 690 to 794 CE spanning the first century of the Empire. During this period, Daitōjin society was predominantly agricultural and largely centered on agricultural life. The period is named for the Taishi district, formerly Sojo-kyo, where the Imperial Capital was moved at the start of the reign of Emperor Suizei. The city of Sojo-kyo was modeled in part on cities in the occident, and in many ways, the Daitōjin nobility patterned itself after the upper class in the Sinosphere.

The Taishi period saw the brief introduction of Buddhism into Daitō, although it failed to catch on overall.
IV. The Heijō Period
The Heijō period lasted from 794 until the end of the Classical Period in 1042. Marked by internal instability, the period saw the secession and de-facto independence of Teshio and Sagami under the rule of the Heike. It gave rise to many legends, and the latter half of this period saw the setting of the famed Heike Monogatari as well as the Genji Monogatari.
IVa. Early Heijō Period

Pictured: Scale Model of Ancient Tenkyō

The beginning of the Heijō period saw the Imperial capital move to modern-day Tenkyō during the reign of Emperor Kōkaku. This came as the Empire entered into a period of instability which, while mostly insignificant until the late-10th century, would rip the nation in half in the late 10th and early 11th centuries. This period would see the rise of the Bushi—the warrior elite of Daitōjin society that would, in time, come to rule the provinces on the behalf of the Emperor. In 852, the Jinshin rebellion occurred, during which time Prince Genkurō attempted to seize power from his older brother, Emperor Ninmyō. The war lasted until 858 when Prince Genkurō was killed on the field of battle. This war would only lead to further chaos over the next century and a half.

IVb. Mid-Heijō Period

Emperor Tenji

The mid-Heijō period is often seen as a prelude to the coming war, as separatist sentiments grew in the regions of Teshio and Sagami, all the while the Heike began to grow their influence in those regions. It would also see the Shikike gain influence in the Imperial Court. And all the while, weak emperors gave way to tyrannical regents and rowdy peasants. But soon, an Emperor would rise to challenge both factions, aided by a vassal from ages past. The stage was set for the Hirashiki war.

IVc. The Hirashiki war

Scene of the Hirashiki War

In 1026, the territories of Teshio and Sagami rose up in rebellion, led by the Heike and Shikike, respectively. At the same time, the Ankan Emperor musters his forces and those of his vassals, seeking to crush the rebellion and restore order. Unfortunately, it seemed the world had different plans, as he would be struck down by an arrow to the eye during the Battle of Shirokawa. The throne would pass to the Emperor's firstborn, who would go on to become the Heiwa Emperor. For the next eleven years, the Heike and Shikike would advance into the nation, reaching as far east as Lake Mutsu. Despite this, constant conflict between them made it impossible for them to advance further, instead attempting to exterminate one another.

Eventually, Emperor Heiwa would come of age, and he, being trained as a military commander, would lead his forces first in reclaiming the western regions before setting his sights beyond. A particularly famous story of an Imperial Archer found its way into the Heike Monogatari, wherein he shot a fan bearing the sign of the rising sun from nearly 230 meters away amid the crashing of waves during a storm. This archer would be raised to the rank of a Bushi, with his family, the Nasu clan, persisting into the modern day.

After many years, the war would finally end in the Battle of Ameshima (1047), where the heads of the Heike would commit ritual suicide rather than face capture by Imperial Forces. At long last, the Empire was united, this time in the truest sense. Now, the once-boy Emperor turned his eyes abroad, to the lands West and South of him, so that he might build a legacy to last ten-thousand years.
« Last Edit: December 18, 2021, 08:52:59 AM by Daitō »

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Re: Civil Factbook of the Empire of Daitō
« Reply #40 on: October 19, 2021, 03:52:35 PM »
History of Daitō, Part Three — The Western Court Period
I. An overview of the Western Court Period
The Western Court period (西部裁判所; Seibu saibansho) was a period from 1047 until 1426, during which time Imperial authority grew. Under the Heiwa, Shiroi, and Sangaku Emperors, the Empire entered into a period of expansion, mostly to the west but also to the south, and the nation prospered.

The Western Court period ended abruptly with a succession crisis in the 14th century, during which time two courts, the Northern Court (which became the rulers of the Empire) and the Southern Court, arose and divided the Empire. The next fifty-one years would thusly be termed the Northern and Southern Courts period.
II. The Early Western Court Period

Heshi-kiri, A tachi owned by Emperor Sangaku

The early Western Court Period is seen as the first true period of imperial expansion beyond the Idai mountains. While there had been previous wars beyond the nation's borders (Emperor Go-Junna sent troops to aid a state in modern day Juhi in 830), and indeed some saw the Empire expand, none went as far west or south as these wars. By 1126, the Empire encompassed much of what is now considered mainland Daitō, with the entirety of modern-day Sagami falling under its hold for the first time. Parts of what is now Rokkenjima's Kavania and Estvua provinces also found themselves under Imperial rule, although they would be abandoned following the arrival of a new group in the region.

III. Ardian Invasions

Imperial forces defend at Komatsu

Unfortunately for some, the age of Imperial expansion on the continent would come to an end with the arrival of the Ardians, known to the Daitōjin as Hokuban, or "Northern Barbarians". Originally hailing from the Aranyean continent, they had begun to settle in lands across the modern Ardian continent (known in those days by a variety of other names), largely on the coast of the Rokkenjiman sea. Concerned by the killings and displacement of their cultural brethren, Emperor Go-Shiroi sent troops to aid the various Onishi states in the region, though to no avail. By the mid-13th century, the last territories held by these peoples were Daitō, Azukishima, and Toshikawa. And as the Ardian Empire continued its rise, it turned its gaze to the Great Empire of the East.

In 1263, Ardian forces under the general and noble Jehan D'Uzès attacked the Empire of Daitō near the city of Komatsu in Ishikari. The Taikō (Grand Duke) of the region, Heishi no Katsumori, rode to block them from continuing their advance. After a long-fought series of battles along the coast, the Ardians would be forced to retreat, fleeing to their ships in an effort to return home. However, their ships would be sunk in a typhoon that struck Karatsu bay. Another invasion would be attempted in 1271, said to be twice as large as the first in contemporary sources. It too would be defeated, though at a great cost of life on both sides, with the Ardian forces who survived a second typhoon either being slaughtered on the beaches of Daitō, escaping home, or being sold into slavery. It is said that of the 80,000 Ardians who attacked in the second invasion, only 9,163 ever returned alive. These two typhoons were considered by many at the time to have been a form of intervention by the spirits and declared Kamikaze, or divine wind.

But despite beating back the Ardian invasion, the Empire had paid a price, and over the next century instability would rise once more, culminating in a succession crisis in the early 15th century.
« Last Edit: December 18, 2021, 08:53:21 AM by Daitō »

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Re: Civil Factbook of the Empire of Daitō
« Reply #41 on: October 19, 2021, 03:53:15 PM »
History of Daitō, Part Four — The Nanboku-chō Period
I. An Overview

The Banners of the Northern and Southern Courts, respectively

The Nanboku-chō Jidai (Northern and Southern Courts period) was a time of civil war in the Empire of Daitō lasting from the death of Emperor Suihei in 1426 until the accession of Emperor Tōitsu in 1477. It saw the rapid adoption of occidental-style firearms such as the Arquebus (the Imperial Court had imported Hand Cannons and Fire Lances from abroad as early as the late-13th century), changing the way that wars were fought by the Daitōjin military.

It is a common misconception that during the Nanboku-chō period, the common folk suffered greatly. This is, except in some provinces, often false, and indeed it was exceptionally uncommon for cities to be sacked during this era. Instead, the feudal armies off the Northern and Southern courts largely fought in pitched battles, rarely sieging cities and instead focusing on castles and other fortifications. This allowed for art and culture to flourish in this age, perhaps making up for the loss of peninsular Onishi civilization outside of Toshikawa.

II. Prelude

A battle during the Nanboku-chō period

In the year 1426, Emperor Suihei passed away without any clear heirs. As a result, two pretenders to the throne arose, with Prince Yasutomo, a descendant of Emperor Go-Sangaku proclaiming himself Emperor in the north while Prince Katsutaka declared himself Emperor in the south. Due to chaos in the old Imperial Capital at Tenkyō, Prince Yasutomo, now Emperor Keitai moved his court to Ashina, renaming it Tenkyō. In the south, the new Emperor Kōgon established himself in the city of Otsu on the shore of Lake Mutsu. The various Lords of the provinces in the five circuits were thusly forced to pick a side or face the destruction of their clans. And so, the stage was set for the Wars of the Northern and Southern Courts.
IIa. Emperors of the Northern and Southern Courts
Posthumous Name
Personal Name
Posthumous Name
Personal Name
1426 - 1451
1426 - 1438
1451 - 1461
1438 - 1459
1461 - 1463
1459 - 1464
1463 - 1498
1464 - 1477
III. The Nanboku-chō Jidai

the Battle of Yusuhara

With the rise of the two Imperial courts, not only was the Imperial House divided, but so too was the Empire as a whole. While the common-folk may not have seen much change from the 14th century, it saw the uprooting of the old social order, with the feudal system failing and giving way to an early form of absolutism. This period also saw the rise of great warriors such as Katsura Masashige, Higashikuze Yoritomo, and Nakagawa Uchikata, some of the last of their kind as the Bushi slowly transitioned into the role of bureaucrats and governors, even if they clung to their martial traditions to the very end.

The wars truly started with the siege of Koriyama in 1429 by forces loyal to the southern court and Emperor Kōgon. The siege, which lasted for two months, gave southern forces effective control over the strategic Hakukawa river, thus permitting them unfettered access from their capital on Lake Mutsu to the sea. This was followed by the battle of Yusuhara in 1430, fought near the city of the same name in modern-day Komoro prefecture, which would prove to be a victory for the Northern Court. In 1434, the Heishi formally sided with the Northern Court. This decision would lead to them holding considerable sway in the government into the modern day.

In time, the wars would come to an end, with the Northern Court coming out on top. The Tōitsu Emperor would continue to rule Daitō into the late 1490s, having led the nation in its reconquest of its old territories on the mainland and expanding it to Tsukishima. His heirs would continue this expansion, establishing outposts across the globe. Daitō would also, thanks to his rule, rapidly adopt the Arquebus, improving it and producing them in large enough numbers to help fuel its expansion.
« Last Edit: December 18, 2021, 08:53:45 AM by Daitō »

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Re: Civil Factbook of the Empire of Daitō
« Reply #42 on: October 19, 2021, 03:53:40 PM »
History of Daitō, Part Five — The Eastern Court Period
I. An Overview of the Eastern Court Period

Shinkyō in 1591

The Eastern Court Period, technically speaking, covers the period of time from the reunification of the Empire in 1477 following the Nanboku-chō Period until the modern day, however, in a scholarly sense, it refers to the period from then until the accession of Emperor Keiyo in 1871. It was a time of peace and prosperity, save for a brief period of unrest in the 16th century as the feudal system was abolished, this being compounded by famine. The nation began expanding overseas, starting with the conquest of Tsukishima in 1491. This was followed only after territorial gains were made on the mainland, however, as Emperor Tōitsu sought to secure the nation's position on the continent and drive out the "barbarians" that had taken hold since the loss of those lands in the 14th century.

The Eastern Court Period saw the continued advancement of technology and culture, with many curiosities being invented and imported from far-flung lands, and the nation prospered under years of benevolent, if absolute, rule. This changed in the 18th century, however, with the reign of the tyrant-Emperor Tosen and the subsequent murders of Emperors Netsui and Go-Seika by him. From there, the nation languished until the 1870s with the reign of Emperor Keiyo.

II. Consolidation of the Empire

Although the War of the Northern and Southern Courts was over, unrest still marred the countryside and foreigners held the lands beyond the Akaishi and Idai mountains. Emperor Tōitsu, now the ruler of a unified Empire, first embarked on a purge of the nobility, sidelining and abolishing the clans which sided with the southern court where necessary and offering new lands in the west in exchange for loyalty in other cases. This came alongside a series of reforms to the systems in place, including new regulations regarding private conduct, dress, marriage, the types of weapons and number of troops allowed by the clans, required lords to reside in Shinkyō every other year, restricted castles to one per domain, and stipulated that Imperial regulations were national law, binding every province. The clans were required to spend a part of their yearly income proportional to their rank in providing logistical support and on public works. These regulations not only served to bolster the new Emperor's popularity among the populace; it also served to bolster his own power while diminishing the power of the clans. Indeed, towards the end of his reign, Emperor Tōitsu would formally separate the han (domains) from their military counterparts, or commanderies, even if often times these were governed by the same people later on.

III. Wars of Expansion

A Battle in Sagami, depicted on a Byōbu screen

First undertaken by Emperor Tōitsu in 1485, the Empire began a period of continental expansion with the goal of securing its position and ensuring that nomadic tribes and foreign armies would not reach the Akaishi and Idai mountains. These wars, which would be undertaken until roughly 1538, saw the Empire gain parts of modern-day Cassiopeia, though these territories would be returned in exchange for peace in the late-17th century. More importantly, as would come to be indicative of the Empire during this period, it sought overseas conquests, starting with the centrally-located Tsukishima.

The War in Tsukishima began in 1493 when Daitōjin forces landed on the south-western coast of the island, capturing the coast within but a year. In spite of this, owing to its rugged terrain, the interior of the island took nearly ten years to truly pacify, and by the time it was, Emperor Tōitsu had passed away, killed in battle in 1498. It is said that Daitōjin forces were brutal in their approach on the island, burning many villages to send a message effectively saying that the others could either surrender or face a similar fate. It worked, in the end, but at a great number of civilians were killed in the process. It is this, alongside what can be considered a form of cultural genocide that has led to the Island's native population now only being a few thousand compared to even the Aranyean immigrants that settled on the eastern coast of the island.

It should not be mistaken that the seizure of Tsukishima was a purely an economic matter, however. Rather, it was invaded for strategic reasons, as its position in the Kyne made for a near-perfect site to extend the nation's force projection deep into the Kyne and eventually beyond. Economic benefits only came later as first merchants began to use it as part of their trade routes and later, oil was discovered along the coast.

Starting in the 1600s, the Empire began to acquire ports along major trade routes, although most of these would only last for a few years. However, some survived as late the 1980s, when the Empire finally handed over its last as a gesture of good will. In time, the nation's fortunes would shift, owing in part to the chaos of the 18th century reign of Emperor Tosen and his murder of his sons, who both would also serve as Emperors.
IV. The 18th and 19th Centuries

The Ferry on the Kiso River, Hiroshige, c. 1851

The 18th and 19th centuries, leading up to the accession of Emperor Keiyo in 1871, proved to be a turbulent time for the nation, beginning a steady decline starting during the reign of Emperor Tosen, known in foreign circles as the "Mad Mikado" for his erratic behavior and later the murder of two of his sons, those being Emperors Netsui and Go-Seika. This, compounded with the short reigns of Emperors Saiko and Go-Heion (who died from Tuberculosis and Influenza, respectively) were seen as a series of ill omens for the Empire, with it being recorded by some that there were fears that a repeat of the Nanboku-chō period was on the horizon. Thankfully, this was not to be, however, the Empire would nonetheless stumble in its course, falling behind other powers in the region for a time.

The reigns of Emperors Kazan and Shoko saw considerable reforms be made in the structure of the Imperial military, with the latter also seeing the beginning of the Industrial revolution within the Empire. War with the Ardian Empire seemed in those days to be inevitable, and it would indeed prove to be the case, for in 1868, the two states would find themselves in conflict.
IVa. The Ardo-Daitōjin War

The Aiga Incident, 1868

By 1868, tensions between the Ardian and Daitōjin Empires had risen to an all-time high, with many believing war could start at any point over any reason. On March 11th, a case for war had been given to the Ardian Empire with news of the Aiga Incident, which saw the killing of five Ardian sailors by Daitōjin authorities. It is believed that the incident occurred as a result of a drunken brawl between the two parties, but despite this, no punishment was given for the Daitōjin soldiers save for reassignment to the relatively peaceful Tsukishima due to rising anti-Occidental sentiments within the nation. As a result of this perceived inaction on the part of the Daitōjin authorities, the Ardian Empire, which also sought to expand into western Daitō, declared war on April 6th.

The War lasted until 1869, after which the Empire of Daitō was forced to cede its lands to the west to the Ardian Empire, lands which would remain in enemy hands until 1918. In 1871, Emperor Go-Kaiyō committed suicide and was succeeded by Emperor Keiyo.
« Last Edit: December 18, 2021, 08:54:13 AM by Daitō »

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Re: Civil Factbook of the Empire of Daitō
« Reply #43 on: October 19, 2021, 03:54:04 PM »
History of Daitō, Part Six — The Keiyo Era

Emperor Keiyo, c.1888
The Keiyo era is an era of Daitōjin history that extended from 19 May, 1871 until 19 November, 1932. The Keiyo era was the first period of the modern Empire of Daitō, when the Daitōjin people truly moved from the agrarian lifestyle common in nations prior to the 19th century to a new paradigm of a modern, industrialized nation-state and at the time, an emergent great power that was influenced—but not subsumed— by Occidental scientific, technological, philosophical, political, and legal ideas. As a result of such adoption of different ideas, the changes to Daitō were profound, affecting its social structure, internal politics, economy, military, and foreign relations. The period corresponded with the reign of Emperor Keiyo, being preceded by the Go-Kaiyō era and succeeded by the Kunan era.

I. Imperial Succession and early reforms.

Procession of the newly-enthroned Emperor to Shinkyō, c. 1871

On the 19th of May, 1871, the seventeen-year-old Prince Shigenori succeeded his father, Emperor Go-Kaiyō, to the Celestial Throne. It was a time of chaos in Daitō, with many fearing that the nation would fall to the Ardian Empire within the decade following the disastrous Ardo-Daitōjin war of 1868. Unrest had broken out in the provinces, with many calling for reforms in a government which seemed, in light of the defeat, incapable of keeping the nation from being conquered. They also sought revenge against the Ardians, their goal being the rival empire's dissolution and the reacquisition of territories lost in the war. Having observed the fighting, the newly-enthroned Emperor incidentally found himself among those who sought such reforms, and as such would, in 1872, issue the so-called "Charter Oath", which outlined the aims and course of action to be taken during his reign.
Quote from: Charter Oath of 1872
1. Deliberative assembly shall be widely established and all matters decided by public discussion.
2. All classes, high and low, shall unite in vigorously carrying out the administration of the affairs of state.
3. The common people, no less than the civil and military officials, shall be allowed to pursue their own calling so that there may be no discontent.
4. Evil customs of the past shall be broken off and everything based on the just laws of nature.
5. Knowledge shall be sought throughout the world so as to strengthen the foundation of Imperial rule.
6. When the time shall come, all efforts must be made for the dissolution of all states which threaten the Empire and its people."

in 1874, another series of reforms would come in the abolition of the han system and its replacement with a system of prefectures. The han, or domains, were the estates held by the various daimyos of the Empire, serving a system of de-facto administrative divisions which superseded the de jure provincial system. Both these prefectures and provinces were abolished and replaced with fifty-seven prefectures on the mainland and Tsukishima. This series of reforms started with the confiscation of lands held by low-ranking lords, with their lands being reorganized into municipalities and districts with elected governments. In 1875, the Imperial government successfully persuaded the lords of the Gunma, Kihoku, and Otaru domains to voluntarily surrender their domains to the Emperor. Between February 19th and October 25th, 1875, fearing that their loyalty would be questioned, all save eight daimyos of other domains followed suit. These eight would be ordered to do so by the Imperial Court under threat of military action.

In exchange for this show of loyalty by surrendering their hereditary authority, the daimyos were re-appointed as non-hereditary governors of their former domains (now prefectures), with these new prefectures being consolidated over the next decade into fifty-two prefectures which continue to exist into the present day. These hereditary governors were allowed, while they remained in office, to keep ten percent of tax revenues, based on actual rice production (which was, incidentally, greater than the nominal rice production upon which their prior obligations were based).

As governors, the former daimyos could name subordinates, but only if these subordinates met qualification levels established by the central government. Alongside this, former samurai were payed their hereditary stipends by the prefectural office rather than the governor, a move calculated to further weaken traditional feudal ties. The title of Daimyo was formally abolished in 1875 alongside the establishment of the kazoku peerage system. The traditional lords of the various regions of Daitō were, for their part, allowed to maintain their hereditary position, albeit purely as a ceremonial role, being given the title of Taikō, or Grand Duke, of their respective circuits. Eventually, the prefectures of Daitō were consolidated, with ex-lords being granted a stipend as compensation if they lost their position.

II. Rebellion and the New Military

IDA forces during the Tottori rebellion, c.1877

Although reform swept the country, it cannot be said that there was no resistance to it. Over the course of the 1870s, there were several rebellions by ex-Samurai who sought a return to the old ways. The most notable of these were the Kiyosato, Wakasa, and Tottori rebellions, with the last of these, the Tottori rebellion, occurring in 1877. There were other minor rebellions, however, these have often been considered more as isolated cases of banditry rather than full-blown rebellions due to their much smaller size. As these rebellions occurred, the Imperial military continued to modernize, adopting its first indigenous modern rifle (the Shibetsu Type 52 was an imported design), the Yamakawa Type 1, in 1871, as well as a standard uniform. Furthermore, the Imperial Navy, which had undergone significant rearmament as early as the 50s, saw a major expansion, with a turreted battleship, the IDN Kaminari, coming into service in 1876.

IIa. The Tottori Rebellion
Haruyoshi Nishiōji, the former lord of Tottori domain and an ex-leader in the Keiyo government who had initially supported the reforms, had become concerned about growing corruption within the government— popular prints depicted the rebel army with banners bearing the words shinsei-kōtoku (new government, high morality). Nishiōji was a strong proponent of war with Alakhwan, believing that the old feudal system could, in theory, be preserved by allocating lands there to former samurai, while the mainland would continue the process currently being undertaken. Indeed, he was willing to visit the country himself and provoke a casus belli by behaving in such an insulting manner that the locals would be forced to kill him. He also believed that the war could easily be won and that the initial stages of the war would allow former samurai to find a meaningful and beneficial death. When this plan was rejected, he resigned from all government positions in protest and returned to his homeland, as did many ex-Tottori samurai in the military and police forces.

In order to support and employ these men, in 1874, Nishiōji established a private academy in Tottori. Over time, a number of branches were established across the prefecture and in neighboring ones. The "training" provided, while including the classics, was not purely academic, as all students were required to take part in mandatory weapons training and instruction in tactics. Over time, much to the concern of the central government, these schools began to resemble paramilitary political organizations more than anything, especially after Nishiōji established an artillery school. Support for Nishiōji had grown significantly in Tottori, with the prefecture having effectively seceded by the end of 1876.

In December 1876, the Keiyo government sent fifty-eight men to investigate the schools set up by Nishiōji, however, they were captured and eventually one admitted under torture that they were planning to assassinate the former daimyo. Although they later repudiated their confessions, the people of Tottori widely believed the claims they had made and justified a rebellion to "protect Nishiōji" from the government. In January of the next year, the government sent a warship, the Katsuragi, to remove the weapons stockpiled in the Tottori arsenal. This move provoked open conflict in the prefecture, although the elimination of rice stipends for samurai in 1877 had already raised tensions to a new high. Over the course of three days in late January, more than one-thousand students staged raids on naval yards and other arsenals across the prefecture.

In early February, the central government dispatched Taikō Kintarō Himekawa, a hero of the Ardo-Daitōjin war and a general in the IDA, to put down the rebellion and capture Nishiōji. His campaign, which would make up the majority of the fighting in the Tottori rebellion, would last until October 11th with the battle of Kokura and the suicide of Haruyoshi Nishiōji.

III. Foundations of the Modern State

Promulgation of the 1899 Constitution
As to adopting the system of the occident to improve our own way of life... it is necessary to base our country on a firm foundation, develop public morals... If, on the other hand, we blindly follow the Hokuban, the foreign, our national policy will decline and our public morals decay beyond rescue."
— Eiji Himekawa, Daijō-daijin, c. 1898

Following the tumultuous 1870s, the empire would gradually enter into a period of prosperity, with foreign trade once more enriching the nation. However, many of the goals of the Charter Oath had yet to be fulfilled, most notably the very first point, that being the establishment of a functional deliberative assembly as well as, to a lesser degree, the second point. Throughout the 70s, the government was effectively an oligarchy, although in 1880, the first Daitōjin constitution, the "Articles of State", were adopted allowing for the creation of the Imperial Diet. In those days, the diet was a unicameral assembly made up of the House of Peers, allowing for the legislative process to actually occur instead of the nation being ruled by decree.

Regardless, by the end of the 1890s, it proved necessary to draft a new constitution that would better suit the purposes of the state. Over the course of three years, overseen by Eiji Himekawa, Daijō-daijin (Chancellor) of the Empire, a constitution which would guarantee that most of the points of the Charter Oath be fulfilled was drafted. This Constitution of 1899 would remain in place until 2021, but even with that being the case, it remains a significant influence on the nation as a whole. Daitō would hold its first national elections in 1900, although there would be no "elected" (i.e. not appointed directly by the Emperor) Prime Minister until the 1980s.

IV. The Acquisition of Styria

Emperor Keiyo is briefed by Vice-Chief of Staff Hagimori on the war in Styria
In 1897, as the government gathered to draft a constitution, emissaries traveled to Kaunderstein, the capital of the then-extant Derusmian Empire with the goal of acquiring their colony in Northern Ardia. The colony, Styria, had long been a territory which the nation had sought to acquire, dating back to the 17th century with the establishment of trading posts along the coast. In those days, the Derusmian Empire was in the midst of economic turmoil, which had prompted them to reach out to the Daitōjin with the goal of selling the land to them. They would be successful in negotiating a deal, with the price being the equivalent of ¥1,780,384,384 ($22,254,804.80 USD) in today's money. Prior to the Great War and the alliance with the Achkaerinese, this was considered the greatest success in foreign policy of Emperor Keiyo's reign, yet it did not go without a hitch, as it were. Nonetheless, the treaty was set to go into effect on January 1st, 1899.

Following the purchase of Styria, local leaders rallied against the proposed acquisition. Feeling betrayed by their homeland and unwilling to join with the Daitōjin, on August 19th, 1898, the leaders of the territory declared their independence, forming the "Freistaat Steiermark" (Styrian Free State) and declaring that a state of war existed between them and the Empire of Daitō. This threatened the treaty put in place between the Daitōjin and Derusmians, but as the matter was, until it went into effect, a Derusmian matter, Daitō was forced to stand by, only fighting when attacked first. But when the first of January came, then did Daitō send its response: If the Styrians wanted war, that is what they would get.

Yet even as the IDN and IDA prepared to fight, there were some within the government that sought a sort of understanding with the Styrians, that perhaps military force would not be necessary. Even as Imperial forces landed along the coast did they seek a third option. Perhaps Styria could be made into a semi-independent protectorate of the Empire for a few decades, at least until tensions had declined or the local government personally requested annexation. It would only be a few months before the war would come to an end; the locals were far from a professional military, being more scattered militias than anything else. But on May 18th, 1899, the leaders of the rebellion reached out to the Imperial government, recognizing just how dire the situation was for them. They would agree to a settlement much like the one suggested by the moderates in the government. Wishing to avoid unnecessary bloodshed, the Imperial government agreed, and on August 15th, the Styrian Free State would be abolished and the Grand Duchy of Styria proclaimed as a client state of Daitō. A member of the House of Altenberg (a Derusmian noble family), Erich I, would instated as the state's first Grand Duke. The war was over, but a shadow was growing on the horizon.

V. The First Ardian War

Ardian troops in the Akaishi Mountains

On the 26th of August, 1914, following acts of aggression towards its ally, Toshikawa (alternatively known as the Yoshimo Shogunate), the Empire of Daitō formally declared war upon the Ardian Empire. It had been nearly fifty years since their defeat in 1869, and the nation was keen to regain the lands it had lost west of the Akaishi and Idai mountains. The Empire, alongside its allies, would find themselves at war with the Ardian Empire and her own allies frequently over the next thirty years. The Great War had begun.

Va. Sanryō sensō

Ardian cannon on Mount Hijiri, 2016

Sanryō sensō (山陵戦争, Mountain Ridge War) is a term referring to the Daitōjin theatre of the Great War. It is marked by fighting in the Akaishi mountains and the valleys between, being notable for the First and Second Battles of Saito in 1916 and 1917-1918. While initial gains were significant, IDA and allied forces quickly became bogged down into trench warfare, similar to that on the Ardian Peninsula, but at high altitudes and with very cold winters. Fighting along the front displaced much of the local population, and several thousand civilians died from malnutrition and illness in Daitōjin and Ardian refugee camps. The Allied victory at Saito and the Daitōjin capture of Motoyama led, in 1918, to the Daitōjin Summer Offensive that would end in an Armistice being signed at Kokonoe.

It is estimated that, over the course of the war in the Akaishi mountains, Daitō lost anywhere from 500,000 to 730,000 men in the fighting. A significant number of these men were killed not by enemy action, but rather by exposure and disease. Nonetheless, for the first time in its history, the majority of those lost were from direct enemy action, owing to advances in technology. Despite the armistice, fighting on the front continued into 1920 against separatist militias.

Vb. Other Theatres

Artillery fire on the Peninsular Front

Daitō participated in other campaigns as well, sending a few divisions to Toshikawa in 1915. Its involvement in the peninsula would be limited, largely devoted to bolstering the lines rather than making any gains of its own accord. However, more importantly was the war in the Kynean sea, which saw multiple battles as well as an extensive submarine campaign against Ardian-aligned shipping starting in 1915 as well. The 1917 Battle of the Ardian Gulf, which saw a fleet under Admiral Inokuchi engage the Ardian navy with the result of twenty-six ships between the two nations, including two Daitōjin battlecruisers and a battleship, being sunk. It was the largest naval battle fought by Daitō during the war, as well as its last direct clash between battleships until 1943.

Eventually, however, the war would come to an end for Daitō, with the armistice signed requiring that Daitōjin forces withdraw from the peninsula in exchange for Ardian forces likewise pulling out of Sagami.

VI. The Final Years of the Keiyo Era

the IDN Sekihō underway in the Dauntel, c.1922

VIa. Aftermath of the First Ardian War

Immediately following the First Ardian War, Daitō found itself embroiled in a series of smaller conflicts within its newly-reacquired lands in the west. Due to the power-vacuum that existed following the Ardian withdrawal, the locals, many of whom were Yezo in origin, declared themselves independent, forming two states in what is now western Sagami. These states were the Daitōjin People's Republic in the northwest and the Republic of Yezo in the southwest. For nearly two years, Daitō waged war against them, with some considering the conflict a civil war while others considered it a mere insurrection amidst the chaos of the post-war period.

By 1920, western Sagami would largely be secured, although bandits still roamed some troublesome spots of the region until 1923. This victory could not come soon enough, as crisis had embroiled another region, that being the Grand Duchy of Styria in Albion. While it had largely remained peaceful following the takeover in 1899, tensions had begun to arise as the local communist party, the KPS, had begun to gain popularity. This, mixed with anti-Daitōjin sentiments following the war, in which the sons of the land were sent to fight in a land they didn't particularly care for were killed in droves. Tensions reached a head on the 1st of May, when a protest by the KPS turned violent and led to a massacre by the local police.

In response, the Imperial Government, seeing that the chaos would not come to an end without its intervention sent three divisions to Styria with orders to put an end to the conflict. At the same time, it summoned representatives of the Grand Duchy in order to negotiate an end to the current system. The Styrian conflict would come to an end before the end of the year, and in 1922, so too would the Grand Duchy, being integrated into the Empire as an Autonomous Circuit, with the terms of this agreement meant to remain in place until 2022. The KPS, as well as the newly-formed DCP (Daitōjin Communist Party), would be banned in 1923, while the last members of the expeditionary force to Styria would return home in 1923.

VIb. The Miyako Islands Dispute

From October 11th, 1928 to June 4th, 1929, Daitō found itself in a low-level conflict with Tytor over the Miyako Islands, a chain of mostly uninhabited islands stretching between Tsukishima and Floodwater. The conflict, which saw no more than three hundred killed and a thousand injured, nearly led to a renewed war between the two countries, however, it would largely come to an end before July of 1929. The islands remained occupied by Daitō until the 1950s, where it was formally signed over to the Empire by the newly-restored Kingdom of Tytor in exchange for support in the Cross-Straits Cold War.

Today, the Miyako Islands are home to a population of two-thousand as well as a small number of military bases. It is commemorated by a statue in Shinkyō, built in 1959 to mark the 30th anniversary of the campaign.

VIc. The End of an Era

Funerary Procession of Emperor Keiyo, c.1932

On the 11th of November, 1932, Emperor Keiyo fell ill with Influenza. The Emperor, now in his late 70s, developed pneumonia and was forced to be hospitalized as a result. He would not return home, passing away on at 11:32 PM on the 19th of November. Despite this, his death was only announced at 12:32 AM on the 20th of November. With his passing, the Keiyo Era came to an end and the Kunan Era began. His reign was the longest in Daitōjin history, lasting sixty-one years. Following his death, the Imperial Diet passed a resolution to commemorate his reign. An Iris garden in Shinkyō where the Emperor and Empress were known to have visited multiple times was selected to be the site of the Keiyo Jingū, a Teido shrine venerating the recently-passed monarch. This shrine does not, however, contain the Emperor's grave, which is in the Imperial Burial Grounds just outside of Shinkyō.
« Last Edit: December 18, 2021, 08:54:55 AM by Daitō »

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Re: Civil Factbook of the Empire of Daitō
« Reply #44 on: November 11, 2021, 03:35:27 AM »
History of Daitō, Part Seven — The Kunan and Daiwa Eras
I. Overview of the Kunan Era

Emperor Kunan, c.1972

The Kunan erais a period in the history of Daitō dating from the 19th of November, 1932 until the 3rd of November, 1973, coinciding with the reign of Emperor Kunan. The new Emperor, at the time of his accession aged forty-three, was known for his militaristic policies in the first half of his reign, owing to the threat still posed by the dying Ardian Empire, but also due to the generally pro-military outlook of the populace at the time. The latter part of his reign has been characterized as a sort of benevolent absolutism, viewing the post-war world as needing strong but just leadership, although in his last years he hinted towards his support for democratization within the country. His reign was followed by that of his Grandson (his son had died of pancreatic cancer two years prior), Emperor Daiwa.

II. The Second Ardian War

Daitōjin Special Naval Landing Forces with gas masks and rubber gloves, Peninsular Theatre, c. 1943

In 1939, Daitō found itself once more in conflict with the Ardian Empire, following a clash between Daitōjin and Heyran vessels in the Kynean Sea. TBA
« Last Edit: December 18, 2021, 09:15:45 PM by Daitō »

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Re: Civil Factbook of the Empire of Daitō
« Reply #45 on: December 12, 2021, 04:56:38 AM »
History of Daitō, Part Eight — The Antei Era
« Last Edit: December 18, 2021, 08:55:20 AM by Daitō »

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Re: Civil Factbook of the Empire of Daitō
« Reply #46 on: December 12, 2021, 04:57:56 AM »
Foreign Relations of Daitō

FriendlyBoth members of the CSTOCulturally speaking, they are deeply linked to one another, breeding a distinct sense of kinship among the
Daitōjin towards their Rokkenjiman cousins.
Isao Himekawa
Allied States of Ardia
CautiousVarious conflicts over the last centuriesDaitō has had multiple conflicts with Ardia over the last centuries and is, as a result, cautious of a potential resurgence in the nation's power.Meiko Kagiyama
NeutralNoneConcern over previous actions and cultural similarities presently prevent Daitō from taking a side.Yoshiaki Katsura
NeutralEmperor attended Lijiangese Royal WeddingUchitsune Tachibana
NeutralNoneDaitō views Jiayuan as a potential ally in the Krimeon Sea.Terumi Enomoto
FriendlyBoth members of the CSTONoneTsunenori Fukazawa
CautiousNoneCassiopeia is viewed by Daitō in a generally neutral manner, having some minor border disputes but otherwise coexisting. However, its new Sovereign Union of Nations has led to concerns by some within the government, leading to it being viewed at present in a cautious, albeit optimistic manner.Yoriyuki Tagawa
Nueva Ardia
新 アルディア
Shin Arudia
NeutralNoneNoneErich Dressler
FriendlyBoth CSTO members. Tytor supported the legitimate government during the 2020 coup attemptDespite a brief period where they were enemies during the great war, Daitō considers Tytor one of it's closest allies.Tetsu Mitsui
Nya Aland
しん あらんど
Shin Arando
NeutralNoneConcern over religious laws, although the nation remains open to cooperation with them in other fields.Zenkichi Arisato
FriendlyBoth CSTO membersDespite being a world away, Achkaerin is considered a close ally of the Empire of Daitō.Uchida Katsumoto
NegativeNoneTamoran support for and practice of Slavery has created significant issues. TINS is deemed a source of state propaganda and heavy travel restrictions are in place between the nations.Sumire Asahara
NeutralNoneWhile concerned by some comments made in the past, Daitō views Clysperis in a neutral manner at this time.Ichiro Danzaki
PositiveNoneSignificant Onishi population in the country from the nation's colonial period. This has led to the Empire having a vested interest in the nation's success going forwards.Erina Aso
NeutralNoneNoneJohan Meier
Alba Karinya/Taijima
East Moreland
PositiveNoneAs a country on friendly terms with Achkaerin, Daitō views East Moreland in a more positive light than it would most nations.Genzō Fukura

As a quick side-note, where possible, transliterations or poetic names of countries are used in the Daitōjin language.