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Factbook of Jugland
« on: November 01, 2019, 11:24:47 AM »
Factbook of Jugland



Background

Jugland is a nation-state in Cotf Aranye. The Kingdom of Jugland was established in the medieval ages, and it was ruled through most of his history by the House of Namnedam, established by King Merem the Brave. Except during the short-lived First Republic period (1901-1906), the monarchy endured in Jugland from ancient times to the 21th century. However, the kingdom found itself involved into a political crisis which led to the Six-Year civil War, which eventually led to the abdication of King Khrym I and the establishment of the Federal Union of Jugland after a complicated peace agreement.

The people of Jugland are largely homogeneous, with most coming from the original tribes that made up the Kingdom of Jugland centuries ago, except in the eastern and northern areas which were occupied by several rival countries, including Jugland, along several colonial settlements in coastal areas, through history. The name 'Jugland' derives from an old word in ancient Csleta language meaning "southern lands". The Csleta language (also known as Csletian) is the official language in the country, spoken by most of their inhabitants.






Government Type: Federal Republic
Head of State & Head of Government: National Council (collective head of state/government)
Population: 59,051,000
Capital City:  Midstenstadt
Demonym: Juglander
Currency: Sedr(es)
GDP per Capita: $15,101
Ethnicity: Juglander 94%; Other Coft Aranye ethnicities 5%; Others 1%
Languages: Csleta / Csletian (official language)
Religions: Order of Werden (majority religion), others


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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #1 on: November 01, 2019, 11:39:45 AM »

The Order of Werden



Werdenism, also known as Werden Cult, is the dominant religion in Jugland. It was the state religion in Jugland until recently, and foreign religions were not allowed until the 18th century. Werdenism has a polytheist framework, although as a religion it focuses more on rituals and practical aspects rather than in doctrine or theology. Unlike other religions, Werdenism lacks a holy book, although there are several literature books or chronicles that have official status.

The most important sources for Werdenist rituals and traditions are:
  • Literature produced by the Werden temples and clergy.
  • Historical chronicles accepted as authentic by Werden authorities
  • Folklore such as folk tales, folk songs, and special traditions and rituals linked to special celebrations or dates

In Werdenism, the world is divided into three spheres: the first is the Upper World, the home of the gods; the second is the Middle World, the world we know, and finally the Underworld. Originally, only the Upper World existed, although it is uncertain how and when it was created. According to Werden mythology, the Upper World is inhabited by a number of gods, as old as time and who emerged from the void as primary divine beings. One of them, Eno, created the Tree of Life, from which the Middle World emerged -as well all plants and animals were created-, while Atter created the Tree of Wisdom, from which emerged the Underworld. From the fruits of the Tree of Wisdom were born some supernatural and immortal beings called the Hjardya (often mistranslated as "angels" ,"demons", or "semi-gods"). The Hjardya, unlike the gods, who can be male or female, are believed to have no gender and be asexual. They originally served as messengers between the Upper and Middle worlds. However, one day Atter convinced the Hjardya to support him to become the sole and only supreme god of the Upper World, in exchange, they could do as they please and stop serving them. Eno, with the assistance of the other gods and Modigin- a mythical hero who ate a golden fruit from the Tree of Life-, defeated Atter, who was imprisoned inside the Tree of Wisdom. The rest of the Hjardya -with the exception of Vennarr, who remained loyal to Eno- were sent to the Underworld. Since them, they are eternally in charge of protecting the Tree of Wisdom, and they are only allowed to leave the Underworld if Eno -who became supreme king of the Upper World since then-, allows them to do so. Since them, Vennarr remained as the messenger of the gods and the Supreme Guardian of the Middle World.

According to the legend, Vennarr is assisted as Guardian of the Middle World by four Guardians, who were worn from golden fruits who fell from the Tree of Life, and are named after the cardinal points. They are assisted by four Hjardya who were allowed to leave the Underworld and establish in the Middle World. Those Hjardya, however, unlike the four Guardians, are not allowed to participate in human affairs, they rather serve as advisors (in ancient Werden literature, however, they relation between the Guardians and their assistant was often presented as some kind of marriage). In one ancient myth, the Grönn Valley -in northern Jugland- was considered to be the center of the universe, therefore the conflicts between the four Guardians were often explained as the case of serious crisis, such as bad harvests, famine, or war.

The nomenclature of the Werden Cult officially refers to the members of the clergy and the administrative organization of the temples and other religious institutions as the "Holy Order of the Werden Wisdom" as a whole, commonly simply called as "The Order". In Werden religion, every temple is destined to the worship of a deity, lacking a hierarchy of temples, although traditionally those where Enno was worshiped were believed to have a higher status. The temples are administered by a magistrate with the title of "Klok" (wise man or scholar) who is in charge of the daily affairs, and who had an education as religious scholars (in case the temple is too large or important, a council of magistrates may lead it instead). However, the ritual ceremonies are performed by female clergy,  who traditionally lived in the temple or a nearby sanctuary. The priestesses have vows of celibacy and poverty and in ancient times they were not allowed to leave the temple. The priestesses are often assisted by underage assistants.

The magistrates were rather powerful in the past, as they served as religious scholars and judges until religious courts were abolished in the 17th century. In ancient times, the religious magistrates were eunuchs. However, this was abolished in the 12th century. Since them, the magistrates must be married. Nowadays, the magistrates have a minor role compared to priestesses. In 1971, women were accepted as magistrates for first time.

Until recently, the King of Jugland was the official and ceremonial head of the Werden Cult. The senior member of the clergy and leader of the Order is the Supreme Priestess, who traditionally resided in the Enno Lyscei Shrine in northwestern Jugland. She is elected by a council of magistrates and priestesses, and serves for life or until retirement. Besides the Supreme Priestess, the Order mostly lacks an established hierarchy, and every temple is relatively autonomous.







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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #2 on: November 03, 2019, 02:54:12 PM »
Politics of Jugland


Government of Jugland

The Federal Union of Jugland is a federal republic established after the Mannstadt Peace Agreement, which ended the Jugland civil war (2014-2020).

The National Council holds the executive power and is composed of seven members elected by the Federal Council. According to the constitution, the National Council serves as a collective head of state. However, one of the Secretaries -as the members of the National Council are officially called- serves as President of the National Council, who carries the representative functions of the head of state in official visits and ceremonial events. Despite this, the President of the National Council has no power above and beyond the other six Secretaries. The President of the National Council, however, is empowered to act on behalf of the whole National Council in urgent situations, when a meeting of the National Council is not possible.

The federal legislative power is vested in the two chambers of the Federal Council, the National Assembly and the Senate. The National Assembly serves as the lower house of the parliament, their members being elected by proportional representation, in which each state forms an electoral district. On the other hand, the Senate is formed by representatives of the states.

The judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Court, which along the Constitutional Council is the highest court in Jugland.

Regional and municipal politics vary in the different states, which have different systems.



Administrative divisions

The Federal Union of Jugland is formed by six states and the federal capital city of Midtenstadt.

The six states are Nordansk, Austland, Vestmark, Vannesdal, Midstemsdal, and Emrta. Every state has its own state assembly and state constitution, in the framework established by the 2021 federal constitution of the Federal Union of Jugland. The five states have wide competences in education, healthcare, taxation, civil law, between others, and limited competences on law enforcement, while the federal government had mostly competences on defense, foreign policy, as well as federal law enforcement and federal taxation.

The particular system of government of each state may be differ consisderably, being the most striking one the fact that the State of Emrta, has a monarchist form of government, being officially named "Grand-Duchy of Emrta".

States of JuglandCapital city     Population (as early 2021)
MidstemsdalAlbrektberg18,290,000
NordanskNordheim13,570,000
AustlandRangingta10,030,000
VannesdalSandberg8,260,000
VestmarkHunnund5,900,000
Grand-Duchy of EmrtaAmvkhar2,360,000
Midtenstadt (federal capital city)      Midtendstadt590,972


All five states hold elections the same day, although they may hold snap elections under special circumstances. However, the latter does not imply the beginning of a new parliamentary term, as there will be held state elections the day the other member states. The next state election will be held on May 2025, in which a nationwide vote for electing representatives for each state assembly will be held, with the exception of the federal city of Midetenstadt, which assembly is elected the day that local elections are held.

Largest cities of the Federal Union of Jugland
*Name          State             Population     
*AlbrektbergMidstemsdal2,837,000
*AmvkharEmrta1,396,000
*MidtenstadtMidtenstadt~963,000
*NordheimNordansk~871,000
*SandbergVannesdal~658,000
*HunnundVestmark~574,000
*KaninheimMidstemsdal~391,000
*FjellstadAustland~372,000
*HernstadtNordansk~322,000
*StromendalenVestmark~311,000



Foreign relations

The Federal Union of Jugland has embassies and consulates in more than 60 countries.

  • Republic of Fleur - The Federal Union of Jugland and the Republic of Fleur have signed a Memorandum of Cooperation and Friendship in 2021, establishing agreements of cooperation in the fields of education, energy, and security.
  • East Moreland - The Federal Union of Jugland and East Moreland have signed a commercial and trade agreement in 2021.

The Federal Union of Jugland has also recently established consulates in Portworth, Chamwick and Silverhills (East Moreland).







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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #3 on: November 03, 2019, 04:01:40 PM »
Armed Forces of Jugland



GROUND FORCES
67,500 Soldiers
28,800 Reservists

210 x Kingsnake Main Battle Tank
180 x Canebreak Light Tank
60 x Anaconda Scout Tank
280 x Cantil Infantry Fighting Vehicle
200 x Boomslang Infantry Fighting Vehicle
180 x Cobra Armoured Personnel Carrier
80 x Adder Armoured Personnel Carrier
80 x Copperhead Recon Vehicle
300 x Bushmaster Mobility Vehicle
200 x Cottonmouth Armoured Mobility Vehicle
75 x Asp Self Propelled Howitzer
45 x Habu Towed Howitzer
35 x Boa Towed Howitzer
45 x Jarraracussu Rocket Artillery
100 x Keelback Air Defence Artillery Tanks





NAVY
19,000 Sailors
8,000 Reservists

4 x Leobwyn Class Submarine

1. Engelhardt
2. Fulberaht
3. Hallbjorn
4. Leutwyn

4 x Mannwald Class Destroyer

1. Wigburg
2. Berahtrand
3. Hugleikarr
4. Hrodgarr

4 x Bjerkesen Class Frigate

1. Hildebrandt
2. Gerlach
3. Gauberaht
4. Grimwald

2 x Hallbing Class Corvette
1. Leobwyn
2. Theubdald

1 x Hemarr Class Landing Ship

1. Othmarr

5 x Tronmark Class Fast Patrol Ship

1. Amalberaht
2. Hramnberaht
3. Heimarr
4. Manwald
5. Frydenot




AIR FORCE
38,000 Airmen
22,000 Reservists

35 x F-21 Fenrir Multi-Role Fighter
35 x F-15 Fafrur Multi-Role Fighter
20 x F-17 Faun Air Defence Fighter
20 x A-111 Ababil Strike Fighter
10 x C-16 Chol Transport Plane
10 x C-20 Cetan Transport Plane
5 x E-7 Erinedi AEWACS Plane
4 x K-3 Kiski Tanker
15 x H-3 Harpy Helicopter
15 x H-6 Hudhud Helicopter
20 x T-15 Tengu Advanced Trainer/Light Ground Attack
20 x T-12 Turul Basic Trainer
4 x U-3 Ushioni UAV









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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #4 on: May 23, 2021, 06:33:17 PM »
Politics of Jugland (2): Political parties




Jugland has a multi-party system with numerous political parties, in which noe one party can easily expect to gain a majority. Parties may cooperate to form coalition. Currently, there is federal government coalition consisted of the five main political parties. The Juglander constitution regulates the election of the members of the federal parliament, the Federal Council, divided in the National Assembly and the Senate. The constitution estipulates that elections are to be universal, direct, free, equal, and secret.

Juglander voters elect their members of the National Assembly through a mixed voting system. They have a vote for a direct candidate, who ought to receive a plurality in their electoral district. A second vote is used to elect a party list in each state. The National Assembly comprises seats representing each electoral district, with the remainder of seats being allocated to maintain proportionality based on the second vote. It is common that direct candidates are also placed on the electoral lists at higher rankings as a fall-back inf they do not win their districts. Currently, there are 150 members of the National Assembly elected directly through their electoral districts, while the other 173 members of the National Assembly are elected through the proportional vote.




Current composition of the National Assembly (2021):
  • National Democratic Party (107 seats)
  • Federal Democratic Party (101 seats)
  • Reform Movement (48 seats)
  • Social Initiative (38 seats)
  • Liberal Party (16 seats)
  • Autonomous Movement for Emrta (8 seats)
  • Freedom Party (7 seats)
  • Workers Democratic Party (2 seats)
  • Independents (6 seats)



List of main political parties in Jugland
NameFoundedPositionIdeologyLeaderDescriptionSeats in the National Assembly (2021)Seats in the Senate*
National Democratic Party2020Center-leftSocial democracy, nationalismGerlach FlogstadThe NDP was formed as a merged of the National People's Alliance, which included most of the promiment members of the rebel National Army107/33317/55
Federal Democratic Party2020Centre to centre-leftSocial liberalism, federalismRaymond Furuholmen / Grimwaldyna NygaardThe FDP was established in 2020 as the merger of several centrist parties101/33319/55
Reform Movement2020Centre-rightLiberal conservatism, statismBurkhardt KvalheimThe Reform Movement was established mostly by ministers and supporters of Engelsaas administration in the Provisional Government (2020-2021)48/33310/55
Social Initiative2020Right-wingConservatism, agrarianismSigeweard FaeravaagSocial Initiative is a coalition of several right-leaning and conservative political parties38/3330/55
Liberal Party1848Centre to centre-rightLiberalismHraban NedlandThe Liberal Party, established in 1848, is the oldest political party16/3333/55
Freedom Party2019Right-wingLibertarianism, Populism, national conservatismFaramund StubberudThe Freedom Party was founded by late Ragnbjorg Herbjornsrud as a Libertarian and pro-business political party, although it has become a more right-leaning and nationalist political party in recent months9/3330/55
Autonomous Movement for Emrta2020CentreLiberalism, regionalist, separatismFredenand OstremAutonomous Movement for Emrta is a political party based in the Grand-Duchy of Emrta, aimed toward more sovreignty and self-determination for the region8/3336/55
Workers Democratic Party2020Left-wingSocial democracy, socialism, anti-capitalismAlbrekt ThortsvedtThe Workers Democratic Party was established in 2020 as the merger of several left-wing political parties2/3330/55
Green Party2021Centre-leftGreen politicsEmmeline KolsethThe Green Party is a left-leaning green party0/3330/55
* The Senate is a legislative body that represents the six federated states of the Federal Union of Jugland at the federal level. Although the members of the Senate may be members of a political party, they rather vote as a block as representatives of their own state government (which may be often formed by a coalition of several political parties) than as the political parties that they are members.



Other political parties:
  • Conservative Party - established in 1811, it was the oldest political party in Jugland until 2018, when the party was dissolved. It was the largest political party during many decades, with a large number of Prime Ministers. However, the party official position following the 2014 protests, in which they supported a tough line in support of the government, consolidated the decline of the Conservative Party, which had already started in the early 21th century.
  • Democratic Party - not confused with the Democratic Union (2016-2020), the Democratic Party was a left-leaning political party established in 1854 by former members of the Liberal Party. The Democratic Party played an important role during the Republic of Jugland (1901-1906) but it was dissolved in 1929.
  • Socialist Party - established in 1890, the Socialist Party was a left-wing and socialist political party. The Socialist Party was dissolved in 1949.
  • Revolutionary Party - The Revolutionary Party was a left-wing and nationalist political party, established in 1904. The Revolutionary Party was renamed as Communist Party in 1939, when the party officially adopted a Marxist-Leninist orientation. Since the late 1970s, the Communist Party failed to enter in the Juglander parliament. It disappeared in the late 1990s, when the party split in several smaller political parties and organizations
  • Labour Party - The Labour Party existed between 1902 and 1949. Although a left-wing political party, it had a both anti-communist and anti-fascist stance.
  • United Labour Party - it was established in 1949, as the merger of the Labour Party and the Socialist Party, as well as other left-leaning organizations. It joined three times the Juglander government (in 1966-1969, as minor party in a Liberal Party government; 1986-1991, and 2008-2009). Although the United Labour Party still exists nowadays, it losts most of its membership during the war, and it is considered today a rather marginal political party.
  • Patriotic Party - it existed from 1900 and 1987, a conservative and far-right political party, which played an important role from 1900 to 1940.
  • National Liberal Party - established in 2001 as a split from the Liberal Party. It played an important role in the 2000s and 2010s, but the party dissolved in 2018.
  • Moderate Party - established in 2019, founded by Johannes Skouen (current Secretary of Transport, Energy and Communications in the National Council). The Moderate Party was officially a right-leaning political party, although it was considered by many as a political party controlled by the rebel National Army, as it was created in the territory controlled by the rebel forces. The Moderate Party was part of the National People's Alliance, and it dissolved in 2020, when the Moderate Party merged with other organizations from the National People's Alliance, establishing the National Democratic Party.
  • New Emrta is a separatist political party, established in 2021. It obtained three seats in the Emrta state assembly in the 2021 state election.
  • The Party of Pensioners, Veterans, and Smallholders is a conservative political party established in 2021 by Helmwald Yivisaker-Aksnes, a former member and MP from the Social Initiative.

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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #5 on: May 31, 2021, 07:22:04 PM »
Society: The States of Jugland


The Federal Union of Jugland is formed by six states, as well as the federal city of Midtenstadt.



Midtenstadt

Midtenstadt (officially Federal City of Midtenstadt) is the capital city of the Federal Union of Jugland. The city was established only in late 2020, over the previous settlement of Nythammel, along the territory of the provinces of Mymark and Tommeland. The current population of Midtenstadt (as in 2021) is 963,000 inhabitants. As a consequence, most of the city buildings and neighborhoods were recently built. However, the western district retains much of the original Nythammel.

Most of the federal government (including the Federal Council -the federal parliament, formed by the National Assembly and the Senate- and the National Council -the federal executive council-) is held in Midtenstadt, with the exception of the Constitutional Council, which is held in Albrektberg, former capital city of the Kingdom of Jugland. Although Midtenstadt is placed between the states of Midstemsdal and Nordansk, the federal city is independent from both, and the Midtenstadt residents do not vote in the state election, electing their representatives in the local election instead.

The Grand Council of Midtenstadt, led by a Lieutenant-Governor, elects the city representatives in the Senate. The Lieutenant-Governor of Midtenstadt is directly appointed by the National Council, following consultations with the local representatives. However, both him and the Grand Council have limited competences and powers, compared to the Town Council and the Mayor of Albrektberg, elected by popular vote.





Midstemsdal

The state of Midstemsdal is the largest state in Jugland, with more than 18 million inhabitants. The capital city of Midstemsdal is Albrektberg, which was the capital city of Jugland for several centuries until 2020, when the capital city was moved to Midtenstadt, after the establishment of the Federal Union of Jugland. Albrektberg, with a population of 2,837,000, is still the largest city in Jugland, and many companies and cultural institutions are still held in Albrektberg rather than in Midtenstadt.

The State of Midstemsdal is headed by a Governor, elected by the state assembly.


Albrektberg, capital of the state of Midstemsdal.

Other important cities in Midstemsdal are Kannenheim (391,000 inhabitants), Mannstadt (295,000 inhabitants), and Leverheim (194,000 inhabitants)



Nordansk

The state of Nordansk, in northwestern Jugland, is the second largest state in the Federal Union of Jugland, with a population of 13,570,000. The capital city of Nordansk is Nordheim, with a population of 871,000. Other important cities in Nordansk are Hernstadt (322,000 inhabitants), Helligstad (260,000 inhabitants), Ngeinta (212,000 inhabitants), and Gronenheim (203,000 inhabitants).

The state of Nordansk is headed by a Governor, elected by the state assembly. The current governor of Nordansk is Othmarr Storstein, from the Federal Democratic Party.


Nordheim, capital city and Nordansk and fourth largest city of the country.



Austland

The state of Austland is located in eastern Jugland, with a population of 10,030,000 inhabitants. It is the largest state (in terms of surface) and the third most populated state. Fjellstad, with a population of 372,000 inhabitants, is the capital city of the state. Other important cities are Gronbukt (230,000 inhabitants), Hamarrland (198,000 inhabitants), Sandheim (195,000 inhabitants), and Starborg (157,000 inhabitants).

Austland was the state most affected by the Juglander civil war (2014-2020), as a large part of its territory was controlled by the National Army and other rebel groups, as well as being the state where more battles took places. As consequence, Austland is the Juglander state with the lowest GDP per capita. It is also the state with the largest rural population of the six states that form the Federal Union of Jugland.

The Governor of Austland heads the state government, being elected by the state assembly. Wighardt Bergersen, from the National Democratic Party, is the current governor of Austland.


Fjellstad is the capital city of the state of Austland.



Vannesdal

The state of Vannesdal is located in southwestern Jugland, with a population of 8,260,000. It is also the smallest state of those five state in mainland Jugland.

The capital city of Vannesdal is Sandberg, with a population of 658,000 inhabitants. Other important cities of Vannesdal are Haugefjord (186,000 inhabitants) and Gjenborg
 (167,000 inhabitants).

The Governor of Vannesdal, elected by the state assembly, heads the state government. The current Governor of Vannesdal is Bertha Gundersen, from the National Democratic Party.


Sandberg is the capital city of Vannesdal.



Vestmark

The state of Vestmark, located in western Jugland, has a population of 5,900,000 inhabitants. Hunnund, with a population of 574,000 inhabitants, is its capital city. Other important cities include Stromendalen (311,000 inhabitants), Mjodde (201,000 inhabitants), and Stromserenga (172,000 inhabitants).

The Governor of Vestmark is elected by the state assembly. The current state government is formed by a coalition of the Federal Democratic Party, the Reform Movement, and the Liberal Party.


Hunnund, capital city of the state of Vestmark.



Emrta

The Grand-Duchy of Emrta is located south of mainland Jugland, about 70 kilometres to Vannesdal, and it has a population of 2,360,000. Emrta is therefore the smallest state in Jugland, both in terms of surface and population.

Amvkhar is the capital city of Emrta, with a population of 1,396,000, being the second largest city in the country. It is Jugland's state with the highest GDP per capita, and it is also the most urban state, as more than half of its population lives in Amvkhar metropolitan area.

It is the only state of the Federal Union of Jugland with a monarchist form of government, following the approval of the state constitution and the Basic Law of Emrta. The Grand-Duchy of Emrta is headed by Grand-Duchess Mildgyd, who was proclaimed as ceremonial head of the state in a ceremony on May 2021. The Grand-Duchess is a constitutional monarch and she has no formal executive powers. Grand Duchess Mildgy is the only daughter of late King Engelhardt III and the sister of King Khrym I, the last monarch of the Kingdom of Jugland.

The state government is headed by the Governor of Emrta, who is appointed by the state assembly. The current Governor of Emrta is Amalberaht Oppegard, from the Autonomous Movement for Emrta.


Amvkhar, capital city of the Grand-Duchy of Emrta.




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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #6 on: June 01, 2021, 01:23:54 PM »
History: The Kingdom of Jugland



The Kingdom of Jugland was established in 1176, when under the leadership of Engelhardt Gustav Theudbald Andersdotter av Gaarderstad, the Mellomhærene armies, several western and northern kingdoms and provinces were unified in a new alliance, following a long war in the region. Engelhardt Andersdotter, a noble from what is today northwestern Jugland, would be crowned as Engelhardt I, the first King of Jugland. During the next centuries, the Kingdom of Jugland expanding its territory. In 1261, Leobwyn I, after the Battle of Vognmakenstadt, following the final defeat of the Csletian League, an alliance of several city-states and autonomous provinces, the Kingdom would consolidate as the largest state in the region.

The Kingdom of Jugland was, until 1579, an elective monarchy, although most of the kings were from the House of Andersdotter, with only a few exception. In 1579, following a brief succession crisis, Mannwald I was crowned as king, establishing the House of Welhaven-Goltzam. In 1591, the Kingdom of Jugland officially became a hereditary monarchy, with Mannwald's son being crowned as King Gerlach II. The Welhaven-Goltzam Dinasty will rule Jugland until the contemporary era.

The Kingdom of Jugland was an absolute monarchy until the 19th-century. In 1811, following a political crisis, a permanent parliament was established for first time, a Council of Ministers formed as Jugland's national government, and some limitations to the monarch's powers were established as well. Still, the King had the power to appoint and dismiss the Prime Minister, veto laws passed by either the government or the parliament, and to promulgate royal decrees without the parliament approval.

In 1849, the Charter of Amvkhar was signed, establishing the Principality of Emrta, which allowed an autonomous government in the Emrta archipelago. From 1849 to 1876, the King of Jugland ruled both the Kingdom of Jugland and the Principality of Emrta, the latter being administered by a Governor-General, who was appointed without the control of the national government. In 1876, the Principality of Emrta was renamed as the Grand-Duchy of Emrta. Since then, and until 1901, although the Grand-Duchy of Emrta was granted more autonomy, the ruler of the Grand-Duchy would be the Grand-Duke, heir of the Juglander throne as the King's elder son.

Following a military defeat in 1881, the Kingdom of Jugland faced political crisis and economic stagnation, resulting in a national crisis at the end of the 19th century. In 1901, a military rebellion led to the abdication of King Godric IV, and the proclamation of the Republic of Jugland (1901-1906). However, a coup d'etat in 1906 led by General Reinhardt Heimarr Nordraak, will result in the restoration of the monarchy four months after. King Godric's younger brother, Theudbald, would be crowned as King Theudbald III in Albrektberg.

The beginning of the reign of Theudbald III would be marked by political repression, although political and social turmoil would continue. Although the Kingdom of Jugland had no written constitution, the powers of the Council of Ministers were expanded and it was considered a de facto semi-constitutional monarchy. Still, the King retained some executive powers, such as the powers of dismissing the Prime Minister or dissolving the parliament, and some limited forms of veto powers. However, Theudbald III would rarely use those powers, and the next decades would be marked by a succession of conservative and right-leaning governments.

In 1951, some political reforms were introduced, increasing the powers of the parliament and reintroducing women's suffrage. The next decades would be relatively calm politically, and the country would experience increasing economic development. However, the election of the United Labour Party in 2008 -in the second left-wing government since 1906- would result in a constitutional crisis the next year, after four ministers from the People's Party -a left-leaning and anti-monarchist political party- joined the government. King Engelhardt III dissolved the parliament and a provisional government was appointed. Six months later, a constitutional reform would be introduced, consolidating the powers of the monarch and the national government over the parliament.

In 2014, a wave of protests were met with violence and repression by security forces. After months of protests and riots, particularly in the southern and eastern provinces, the protests would eventually lead to anti-government rebellion, and the start of the Jugland civil war (2014-2020). King Engelhardt III, would die in late 2015, being replaced by his son, Khrym who was crowned as King Khrym I on December. In 2020, following a military mutiny in Amvkhar and the assassination of the Prime Minister, King Khrym I would abdicate. A Provisional Government would be established, led by General Stian Mjosberg, who would become the de facto head of state of the Kingdom of Jugland. Mjosberg would be replaced two months later by Eadwald Engelsaas, who would reestart negotiations with the National Army, the main rebel force, and call elections to a Constituent Assembly.

Following the Mannstadt Peace Agreement, the Constituent Assembly, the first nationwide parliament since 2015, would negotiate and pass a new constitution, which would be approved in national referendum in late December 2020. A few days later, the Provisonal Government would announce the proclamation of the Federal Union of Jugland, being the Kingdom of Jugland abolished. Following the first legislative elections, the Provisional Government would be replaced by the National Council, as it was established in the Juglander constitution, and a National Unity government formed by the Federal Democratic Party, National Democratic Party, Reform Movement and Liberal Party established, with the support of the conservative Social Initiative and some independent representatives.



List of Juglander monarchs

Kingdom of Jugland (1176-1901)
  • Engelhardt I (1158)-1217), King of Jugland (1176-1217)
  • Wigburg I (1179-1243), King of Jugland (1217-1243)
  • Hildebrandt I (1225-1261), King of Jugland (1243-1261)
  • Leobwyn I (1230-1293), King of Jugland (1261-1293)
  • Othmarr I (1229-1298), King of Jugland (1293-1298)
  • Godric II (1235-1299), King of Jugland (1298-1299)
  • Waramund I (1240-1303), King of Jugland (1299-1303)
  • Amalberaht I (1278-1312), King of Jugland (1303-1312)
  • Fulberaht I (1265-1313), King of Jugland (1312-1313)
  • Berahtrand I (1265-1320), King of Jugland (1313-1320)
  • Gerlach I (1295-1341), King of Jugland (1320-1341)
  • Theubdald I (1301-1351), King of Jugland (1341-1351)
  • Waramund II (1326-1356), King of Jugland (1351-1356)
  • Godric II (1334-1366), King of Jugland (1356-1366)
  • Ragnvaldr I (1329-1385), King of Jugland (1366-1385)
  • Engelhardt II (1355-1385), King of Jugland (1385-1387)
  • Gerlach II (1339-1396), King of Jugland (1387-1396)
  • Wigburg II (1372-1397), King of Jugland (1396-1397)
  • Othmarr II (1356-1399), King of Jugland (1397-1399)
  • Godehardt I (1373-1421), King of Jugland (1399-1421)
  • Godehardt II (1399-1429), King of Jugland (1421-1429)
  • Hramnberaht I (1377-1435), King of Jugland (1429-1435)
  • Waramund III (1406-1470), King of Jugland (1435-1470)
  • Heimarr I (1439-1476), King of Jugland (1470-1476)
  • Hallbjorn I (1421-1489), King of Jugland (1476-1488)
  • Engelhardt II (1462-1490), King of Jugland (1488-1490)
  • Ragnvaldr II (1465-1491), King of Jugland (1490-1491)
  • Leutwyn I (1456-1516), King of Jugland (1491-1516)
  • Hugleikrarr I (1470-1529), King of Jugland (1516-1529)
  • Hrodgarr I (1487-1540), King of Jugland (1529-1540)
  • Leobwyn II (1503-1564), King of Jugland (1540-1564)
  • Gautberaht I (1527-1576), King of Jugland (1564-1576)
  • Leobwyn III (1552-1578), King of Jugland (1576-1578)
  • Grimwald I (1544-1579), King of Jugland (1576-1579)
  • Mannwald I (1541-1591), King of Jugland (1579-1591)
  • Gerlach II (1560-1619) King of Jugland (1591-1619)
  • Waramund IV (1578-1637), King of Jugland (1619-1637)
  • Theudbald II (1608-1657), King of Jugland (1637-1657)
  • Mannwald II (1633-1660), King of Jugland (1657-1660)
  • Frydenot I (1640-1705), King of Jugland (1660-1705)
  • Hramnberaht I (1678-1711), King of Jugland (1705-1711)
  • Godric III (1685-1740), King of Jugland (1711-1740)
  • Aldegunda I (1717-1780), Queen of Jugland (1740-1780)
  • Wulfgang I (1741-1790), King of Jugland (1780-1790)
  • Gerlach III (1747-1792), King of Jugland (1790-1792)
  • Leobwyn IV (1768-1835), King of Jugland (1792-1835)
  • Mannwald III (1793-1875), King of Jugland (1835-1875) and Prince of Emrta (1846-1875)
  • Hramnberaht II (1830-1879), King of Jugland (1875-1879) and Prince of Emrta (1875-1876)
  • Godric IV (1851-1922), Grand-Duke of Emrta (1876-1879) King of Jugland (1879-1901)

Kingdom of Jugland (1906-2020)
  • Theudbald III (1856-1925), King of Jugland (1906-1925)
  • Gerlach IV (1899-1972), King of Jugland (1925-1972)
  • King Engelhardt III (1940-2014), King of Jugland (1972-2014)
  • King Khrym I, King of Jugland (2014-2020)



List of Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of Jugland
  • Hughardt Njall Ballangrud (1770-1828), Prime Minister (1812-1820), previously Chancellor of the Treasury (1807-1812) - Clan Hoyde / Conservative Party
  • Ortwyn Evensen (1766-1822), Prime Minister (1820-1822) - Independent
  • Hughart Njall Ballangrud, Prime Minister (1822-1826) - Conservative Party
  • Othmarr Johannessen (1782-1859), Prime Minister (1826-1827) - Clan Sornad
  • Gautberaht Guttormsen (1764-1845), Prime Minister (1827-1828) - Clan Kornell
  • Hulderic Larsen av Nyttland (1779-1848), Prime Minister (1828) - Conservative Party
  • Walhafryd Knudsen-Maier (1769-1852), Prime Minister (1828-1829) - Conservative Party
  • Hermann Snorr Hakonsen (1788-1850), Prime Minister (1829-1835) - Conservative Party
  • Ekkehardt Sklett (1779-1848), Prime Minister (1835-1841) - Clan Sornad
  • Hermann Snorr Hakosen, Prime Minister (1841-1844) - Conservative Party
  • Theudbald Pettersen (1799-1878), Prime Minister (1844-1846) - Clan Kornell
  • Reinhardt Ballangrud (1811-1882), Prime Minister (1846-1855) - Conservative Party
  • Erhardt Ljokelsoy (1799-1869), Prime Minister (1855-1856) - Independent
  • Hugleikrarr Jakobsen 1784-1860), Prime Minister (1856) - Clan Sornad
  • Reinhardt Ballangrud, Prime Minister (1856-1864) - Conservative Party
  • Oswald Knudsen (1784-1865), Prime Minister (1864-1865) - Conservative Party
  • Sigeweard Alsgaard (1792-1878), Prime Minister (1865-1868) - Conservative Party
  • Glaedwyn Ronningen (1804-1881), Prime Minister (1868-1871) - Liberal Party
  • Reinhardt Ballangrud, Prime Minister (1871-1876) - Conservative Party
  • Lamprecht Braekhus (1809-1898), Prime Minister (1876-1880) - Liberal Party
  • Hughardt Grimseth (1821-1894), Prime Minister (1880-1881) - Independent
  • Baldwyn Solberg-Hakomsen (1830-1903), Prime Minister (1881-1884) - Conservative Party
  • Lamprecht Braekhus, Prime Minister (1884-1886) - Liberal Party
  • Balwyn Solberg-Hakomsen, Prime Minister (1886-1892) - Conservative Party
  • Ragnbjorg Hagen (1847-1929), Prime Minister (1892-1895) - Conservative Party
  • Godehardt Kraggerud (1848-1930), Prime Minister (1895-1896) - Liberal Party
  • Walhafryd Agdestein (1836-1908), Prime Minister (1896-1898) - Conservative Party
  • Fredenand Kjelling (1852-1928), Prime Minister (1898) - Independent
  • Mannwald Hammerseng (1858-1923), Prime Minister (1898-1899) - Conservative Party
  • Fredenand Kjelling, Prime Minister (1899-1901) - Independent
  • Walhafryd Agdestein, Prime Minister (1901) - Conservative Party
  • ...
  • Colmund Edin-Barthold (1852-1919), Prime Minister (1906-1908) - Independent
  • Ragnvaldr Tufte (1863-1845), Prime Minister (1908-1916) - Conservative Party
  • Reinhardt Heimarr Nordraak (1859-1941) - Prime Minister (1916-1918) - Patriotic League
  • Gautberaht Leonhardsen (1858-1923) - Prime Minister (1918-1923) - Conservative Party
  • Leobwyn Ekeberg (1867-1947) - Prime Minister (1923-1926) - Conservative Party
  • Wydukind Hansen (1866-1937) - Prime Minister (1926-1927) - Patriotic League
  • Leobwyn Ekeberg, Prime Minister (1927-1929) - Conservative Party
  • Grimwald Rustadstuen (1870-1941) - Prime Minister (1929-1935) - Liberal Party
  • Leobwyn Ekeberg, Prime Minister (1935-1937) - Conservative Party
  • Othmarr Sperrevik (1869-1940) - Prime Minister (1937-1940) - Conservative Party
  • Herewardt Bjornstad (1874-1965) - Prime Minister (1940-1945) - Conservative Party
  • Osgard Hunstad-Nordby (1883-1967) - Prime Minister (1945-1951) - Liberal Party
  • Herewardt Bjornstad, Prime Minister (1951-1955) - Conservative Party
  • Raymond Aamodt-Vikingstad (1897-1977), Prime Minister (1955-1957) - Conservative Party
  • Horsarr Gjerdalen (1894-1986), Prime Minister (1957-1964) - Conservative Party
  • Gebhardt Mathisen (1903-1995), Prime Minister (1964-1966) - Conservative Party
  • Lamprecht Lovland (1916-1995), Prime Minister (1966-1969) - Liberal Party
  • Ulrich Bredesen (1916-2005), Prime Minister (1969-1973) - Conservative Party
  • Lamprecht Lovland, Prime Minister (1973-1976) - Liberal Party
  • Waldymar Daehlen (1912-2005), Prime Minister (1976-1979) - Liberal Party
  • Giselmund Thaegger (1925-2013), Prime Minister (1979-1986) - Conservative Party
  • Gautberaht Northug (1932-2019), Prime Minister (1986-1991) - United Labour Party
  • Theudbald Bredesen (1943), Prime Minister (1991-1997) - Conservative Party
  • Hramnberaht Ostensen (1953), Prime Minister (1997-2000) - Liberal Party
  • Osgard Kringlebotn (1937-2018), Prime Minister (2000-2004) - Conservative Party
  • Njall Leutwyn Jakobsen (1948), Prime Minister (2004-2005) - Independent
  • Hildebrandt Morgensen (1953), Prime Minister (2005-2008) - Conservative Party
  • Alaric Aukrust (1954), Prime Minister (2008-2009), United Labour Party
  • Eysteinn Bardalen (1950), Prime Minister (2009) - Independent
  • Hugleikrarr Eriksen (1957-2017), Prime Minister (2009-2010) - Independent
  • Theudbald Bredesen, Prime Minister (2010-2012) - Conservative Party
  • Aldwin Vlaasen (1962), Prime Minister (2012-2013) - National Liberal Party
  • Farvald Karlsen (1963), Prime Minister (2013) - Independent
  • Hulderic Eggsen (1958-2018), Prime Minister (2013-2014) - Coalition of Right Forces
  • Fulberaht Hansen-Bergen (1959), Prime Minister - Coalition of Right Forces (2014)
  • Hramnberaht Floand (1970), Prime Minister - Independent (2014)
  • Reinhardt Herlovsen (1963), Prime Minister (2014-2015) - Independent
  • Wulfgang Grongstad (1966), Prime Minister (2015) - Conservative Party
  • Berahtrand Motland (1956), Prime Minister (2015-2016) - Independent
  • Bernhardt Vigeland  (1964), Prime Minister (2016-2018) - Coalition for Jugland
  • Konrad Haageland (1959), Prime Minister (2018-2020) - Coalition of Right Forces
  • Sepp Nupekam (1951), Prime Minister (2018-2020) - Independent
  • Stian Mjosberg (1944), President of the Provisional Government (de facto head of state) - 2020
  • Eadwald Engelsaas (1949), President of the Provisional Government (de facto head of state) - 2020-2021




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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #7 on: June 02, 2021, 06:53:21 PM »

Culture: Calendar and Traditions


Calendar

The Nyaera Calendar ("New Era") calendar was established in March 2021, to replace the traditional Juglander calendar which was based in the reign of the Juglander king, as a consequence of the abolition of the Kingdom of Jugland and the establishment of the Federal Union of Jugland.

The official calendar has twelve months of 30 days, as well as five or six extra days at the end of the year known as Solnedgangarr coincidental with the Sluttenatten festivities, one of the most important religious celebrations in the Order of Werden, the largest religion in Jugland.

New Year Day is held on December 31th, the day the Federal Union of Jugland was proclaimed.

List of months
  • Frysuar (December-January)
  • Regnuar (January-February)
  • Vinduar (March)
  • Spiruar (March-April)
  • Friktuar (April-May)
  • Solember (May-June)
  • Varmember (June-July)
  • Sommember (July-August)
  • Hvetuar (August-September)
  • Bygguar (September-October)
  • Kornuar (October-November)
  • Soloppganguar (November-December)

We are currently in the 1st Year of the Nyaera.




Festivities and Holidays

Gnistendagen is a festivity, which famously includes the symbolical burning of scarecrows and fruits, related to the worshipping of the goddess Dattra and the start of the harvest season. The festivity is particularly important in Albrektberg, former capital city of the Kingdom of Jugland, as the city has the largest temple dedicated to that goddess (Early February).

Mormarrgen (sometimes translated as "Mothers' Day") is a religious festivity dedicated to the souls of the women of your family -the deceased mothers, grandmothers, great-grandmonthers, etc.- who still watch over their descendants from the Underworld. It is a festivity associated with healing, bonfires, and dancing around them (late February).

Begynnelsen is a religious festivity held around consecrated to fertility and fecundity. It is traditional to paint stones with several colours and give them as a present to beloved ones, who in turn will bury them as a promise to the Spring Goddess (March 19-21).

Dodminnen (also known as "The Festival of the Death") is a religious festivity aimed to remember Atter rebellion against the other gods of the Upperworld. It is particularly important in Briskemyr, where there is the only existing temple dedicated to Atter. It is traditional that believers burn charcoal and cover their faces with its ashes. Although it is a serious and gloomy religious festivity, in recent decades it has given space to more joyous and ironic celebrations in popular culture (late April).

Heltendag is a religious holiday consacrated to Modigin, a mythical hero (May 4th)

Midtsommerfor is the festivity held the night before Gjenfodelsatten, consacrated to the veneration of the power of the Sun. It is tradition to sacrifice a lamb at midnight in the temples consacrated to the god Verme (June 20th).

Gjenfodelsatten is a 12-day festival held around Summer solstice, the most important festivity for the followers of the Order of Werden. It conmemorates the victory of God Enno over his rival Atter and the defeat of the forces of the Underworld, bringing light and warm back to the Middle World. Besides attending the religious rites and sacrifices, Gjenfodelsatten is a time for dancing, feasting and family meetings.

Brannetten is a religious festivity consacrated to the divinities related to the Fire. Wood and leaves are typically burned nearby related temples (late July).

Vennarrukelg is religious festivity consacrated to Vennarr, Supreme Guardian of the Middle World.

Taptsjeletten is a festivity held on Autumn Equinox. It is traditional that people light candels in temples and cemeteries for those who have not surviving relatives and therefore their souls are wandering in the Underworld.

Svinnehendagen is a religious festivity related to the end of the Harvest Season. It is not celebrated nationwide, however, although it can be very important in certain regions. It is particularly related to the Wind divinities (late September).

Svartten (also known as "Black Week" or "Dark Nights") is a religious festivity consacrated to the remembrance to the dead and one's own ancestors. It is traditional to held feast and family meetings at the end of the Svartten. It is believed that is the only time in the year that souls from the Underworld can visit the Middle World (late September-early October).

Fredagsdagen ("Peace Day") is an official and secular holiday held in the anniversary of the end of the Juglander civil war on October 2020 (October 27th).

Juglandagen ("Juglander Day") is a official holiday, the National Day of the Federal Union of Jugland (November 3rd).

Constitution Day is an official holiday on the day that the current Juglander constitution was passed by the Constituent Assembly on 20 December 2020 (December 20th).

Sluttenatten, also known as "Midwinter", is a religious celebration held after the Winter solstice (late December).



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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #8 on: June 04, 2021, 10:21:29 PM »
History: Important People of Jugland



Leobwyn I the Wise (1230-1293)
Leobwyn, a member of the House of Namnedam, was confirmed by the Royal Council to replace his father, King Hildebrandt I , being crowned as King of Jugland at the age of 31. He consolidated the military success of his father, who died only two months after the final defeat of the Csletian League. He also consolidated Jugland borders through several military campaigns while also improving the diplomatic standing of the kingdom with nearby countries.

Leobwyn was also known for his scientific interests -led him to sponsor the work of scientists, philosophers, and historians. He also is considered the author of several historical chronicles, in poetic form, which combines the narration of historical events with religious tales and folk stories with a moralizing meaning. He also funded the building of many religious temples, strengthening the political position of the Order of Werden althoug he also authored a law code which weakened the power of religious courts. His death, at the age of 63, started a period of political unstability that lasted several decades.



Mannwald I the Great (1541-1591)
Mannwald I became King of Jugland in 1579, following a long political crisis after the death of Grimwald I the same year. He was the first member of the House of Welhaven-Goltzam to become monarch, effectively starting the Welhaven-Goltzam Dinasty. He faced political and social turmoil during his reign, although he was able to external threats to the kingdom as well as introducing several administrative reforms.

He ended religious persecutions of Christians, more as a diplomatic tool on his foreign policy rather for religious or moral convictions. After a failed assassination attempt in 1584, he abolished the Royal Council, de facto turning the Kingdom of Jugland into a heriditary monarchy, a decision which would be established into law by his son, King Gerlach II.

A cult surrounding the personality of Mannwald I emerged during the monarchist restoration in early 20th century, promoted by nationalist and conservative politicians and writers. However, a more balanced and sometimes negative assessment of his reign appeared in recent decades. During his reign, it was also the last time that a Supreme Priestess of the Order of Werden was executed for violating the religious code, a controversial event which has been depicted in many literary works and films in the last decades.





Gautberaht Athanaric Bjerkesen (1570-1655)
Gautberaht Bjerkesen was a historian and politician. He was born in a noble family from Kanenheim. He served as Chancellor of the Treasury from 1628 to 1631, although he is mostly famous for writing "History of Albrektberg", a historical chronicle in which he depicted historical events from late 11th century to the reign of Gerlach II. The book is composed by fourteen volumes and more than one thousand pages, and he is considered the founder of modern historiography in Jugland. He was also considered one of the major political writers of his era.




Fredenand Undset av Hallbing (1639-1690)
Fredenand Undset av Hallbing, often known as simply Fredenand Hallbing, was a religious scholar and philosopher. He lived most of his life in Sandberg, although he lived in Albrektberg from 1681 to 1684,  serving as high magistrate in the Order of Werden. Previously, most of his career he was judge in religious courts. He wrote many religious works, being considered the most important religious scholar of the modern times. He is also is known for being the author of "Pious Legends", a group of moral tales retelling stories of Juglander mythology. He also defended the influence of the clergy on government policy in his more political writings.







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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #9 on: June 06, 2021, 11:24:19 PM »
History: Important People of Jugland (2)





Giselmund Albrekt Vildalen av Hemarr (1720-1788)
He was writer, politician and philosopher.  In 1754, he moved to Albrektberg, where he was appointed to several state administration positions. During those years, he wrote extensively, both in official report and published works on political and economic issues, with a monarchist but modernizing view. In 1776, he joined the government as Minister of Justice, in which he attempted to reduce the role of the religious courts, and started several draft for new laws. However, most of those projects were not inconclusive. He, however, was able to gain Queen Aldegunda support to pass a law which, between other things, would abolish death penalty against the clergy for violation of their religious vows. He was dismissed in 1778. He returned to Hernstadt, his home town, where he started his project of writing a dictionary of Csletian language. After the dead of Aldegunda I in 1780, he felt out of favour and he would be arrested in 1782, expending the next five years in prison. When he was released, he was already seriously ill, and he would die a few years later.

Besides his political writings, Vildalen wrote extensively on natural philosophy and psychology. He considered that all knowledge comes from the senses and there are no innate ideas, which led to many to consider him a pioneer on materialism thinking in Jugland, despite he denied in his correspondence to be an atheist.




Gaufryda Odilia Vildalen av Hemarr (1726-1781)
Gaufryda, also known as "Fryda Vildalen", was a noblewoman and Juglander poet, Giselmund Vildalen's only sister. She married to Baron av Norebo, who was a personal friend of his brother. In 1777, the couple moved to Albrektberg, where they joined Giselmund. She became a prominent member of Queen Aldegunda's court. However, her husband would died in 1779, and she would move back to her late husband's hometown.

Her literary work would only be published posthumously, but they would be rediscovered in late 19th century. As it was typical at the time, her poetry was mostly moralizing although they have also social criticism, particularly about the role of women and hypocrisy. A collection of the collected letters between her and his brother was published in the early 20th century, becoming very popular in academic circles, in their letters, they talked about daily and family issues, but also discussed about poetry or mythology, two topics that highly interested to Gaufryda. She died in 1781, after a cholera epidemy affected the province where she lived her last years.

She was suspected to play an important role in the reform of the clergy statute enacted by her brother. However, she described priestesses in one of her poem as "slaves of fate", and she allegedly opposed that her second daughter, as it was a tradition in noble families at the time, were sent to a religious school to be ordered priestess. These aspects of her biography, as well as being reclaimed by feminists and republicans as an ideological foremother, made her controversial in early 20th century. However, since the 1990s, many schools, libraries and streets were renamed with her name.




Hramnberaht Wulfgang Sollied av Gjortzen (1739-1824), known as Hramnberaht Gjortzen
He was a philosopher and mathematician. His ideas, including support for a liberal economy, public instruction, and constitutional government made him a highly influencial author in Juglander liberalism.
Before 1790, his writings mostly focused on science, writing particularly on integral calculus. He had joined the Royal Academy of Sciences in 1782. The next year, he was requested to write a treaty on astronomy, which was funded by the state.

In 1790, he published a treaty on pedagogy, in which he defended the abolition of physical punishments. In the next years, he wrote several philosophical and political treaties, in which he started to expose his political views. After being identified as the author in a treaty published under a pseudonym, in which he criticized the absolute monarchy and defended parliamentary elections, he was expelled from the Royal Academy of Sciences. He was briefly imprisoned in 1796, and he was definitely sent to exile in 1799. He would not be allowed to return to Jugland until 1821. His works would be influential in the founding of the Liberal Party, several decades after his death.




Cynebaldina Bertha Walhafryda Hagen-Ekeberg av Tronmark (1758-1822), also known as Duchess of Tronmark
She was the only daughter of Gautberaht Hagen-Ekeberg, 6th Duke of Tronmark, who served as Chancellor of the Treasury in the reign of Wulfgang I. In 1777, she was married to Frederick Oldenburg, a Danmark national, who was at the time in a diplomatic visit to Jugland. She was 19, and her husband was 46.

The couple moved to Albion, where the Duchess would play an active role in the Copenhagen court. They had six children, but four of them died in infancy. It is believed that her son Ludvig Frederick, born in 1784, was the child of the Duchess and Hugleikrarr Kolseth, who was serving as Juglander ambassador in Danmark at the time. In Albion, she wrote "Letters to Jugland" (1782), a satirical work in which she depicted events of her own biography and Juglander history but as if she was actually describing the Albion nation. The book was misunderstood but she exposed in it some of her liberal ideas. Her husband died in 1797. She got bored about life in Danmark and returned to Jugland in 1799. She became Duchess of Tronmark after the death of his father, and she hosted a salon in Albrektberg, in which both politicians and writers often attended.

In 1801, she published under a male pseudonym a provocative novel "Bertha", in which she described a young priestess being pursued romantically by all kind of men from all social stratums of Juglander society. The novel was automatically banned by the authorities. She started to write articles under her name in a moderate newspaper, something unusual for a women in the time, mostly on literary criticism. In 1804, she published "An Outline of Juglander literature". It would be, however, her social activities which would cause her demise, as authorities started to suspect that her salon had become a source of plotting against Hughardt Ballangrud's government and she was forced to exile from Jugland. Between 1810 to 1814, already in her 50s, she visited several countries in both Alba Karinya and East Ardia. In 1815, she returned to Jugland, although she was not allowed to return to Albrektberg. In 1818 she published "On Life on Jugland", an essay which dealed with philosophical questions and description of social institutions, and a last novel, about the life of a recently married woman.

After Queen Aldegunda I, Duchess of Tronmark is considered one of the most influential women of the time. She is also considered a precursor of feminism in Jugland, although she often held contradictory views about the role of women in society. She exchanged letters with many important men, both in Jugland and abroad, including Hramnberaht Gjortzen.






Ekkehardt Lamprecht Rekdal (1764-1830)
Rekdal was born in a noble family of rather modest means from eastern Jugland. His father was a retired Lieutenant in the Royal Armed Forces. He was sent to study to Sandberg, where he studied Law, Theology, and Philosophy. He moved to Albrektberg in 1791, he moved to Albrektberg, joining the State University of Albrektberg. There, he made the acquaintance of Hramnberaht Gjortzen. He married Grimhildra Blomkvist, the daughter of a high-ranking military officer, in 1792, whom he would have seven children. During that time, he occupied himself with translating essays by foreign writers into Juglander language. He exposed some liberal ideas in his youth. However, he increasingly moved to the right in the next decades.

He is mostly remembered for his work "History of Jugland", a 10-volume national history. Many considered him as the founder of modern historiography in Jugland. In later decades, however, his political writings became more influential, considered as one of the main founders of political conservatism in Jugland. He openly supported the absolute monarchy, and his "History of Jugland" is considered by many of an epic defense of the founding of Kingdom of Jugland. In later writings, he attacked liberal authors as Gjortzen and Duchess of Tronmark, famously calling the latter to "stick to knitting" in a critical review. In 1822, he became an official advisor to King Leobwyn IV, and he was appointed to the royal parliament. He served briefly in the government under Prime Minister Fulberaht Storholt.












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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #10 on: June 10, 2021, 07:26:22 PM »
History: Important People of Jugland (3)





Hughardt Njall Ballangrud (1770-1828)
Hughardt Ballangrud was a politician and diplomat. He served as Chancellor of the Treasury (1807-1812) and Prime Minister (1812-1820 and 1822-1826). He was instrumental in the creation of the Council of Ministers in 1811, the first national government in the Kingdom of Jugland, and the introduction of several administrative reforms aimed to modernize the state. The same year, it was also established for first time a permanent parliament, although both the government and the monarch retained a veto power over the decisions passed by the parliament.

Ballangrud also founded the Conservative Party in 1817, aimed to break the tradition of the powerful political clans. Although the Conservative Party would remain the largest political party of the parliament for the rest of the century, the influence of the clans would effectively decline only in the 1840s. Although he is remembered a stateman who helped to build a modern government in Jugland, he was strongly opposed to democracy and he opposed to further expansion of the political franchise, restricting suffrage to propertied men, who gained him the hatred of left-leaning liberals and progressive forces.




Glaedwyn Ronningen (1804-1881)
Glaedwyn Ronninger was a diplomat and politician. His grandfather was a high-ranking military officer in the Juglander army. He moved to Albrektberg in 1824, where he started a brief career as journalist and wrote for several literary magazines as well. He started a career of diplomat in 1833, serving as ambassador in East Moreland and Eskdale. He returned to Jugland in 1840, and in 1842 he was elected to the parliament in the northwestern district of Nordheim. He served briefly as Minister of Education in Theudbald Pettersen's government from 1844 to 1845, but he was forced to resign as his reforms aimed to expand public schools over religious ones did not find the support of the monarch. He would remain a member of the parliament until his death, in 1881.

In 1848, he founded -along with another three members of the parliament-, the Liberal Party, aimed to strengthen the powers of the parliament over the government, consolidate the constitutional monarchy in Jugland, and as well as expanding the male suffrage at least to the middle classes. On economy, Ronningen defended free trade over protectionist policies. He would remain leader of the Liberal Party until 1872.

He was appointed Prime Minister in 1868, forming the first Liberal Party government in Jugland. However, the government lacked enough support in the parliament, and failed to pass important reforms. He was dismissed by King Mannwald III, being replaced by his arch-rival Reinhardt Ballangrud. However, as leader of the opposition he played an important role to achieve the 1864 reform, which expanded suffrage to nearby half of the male population.

Ronningen married twice and he had eight children. His son Albrekt Herewardt served as Minister of Public Works in Braekhus second government (1884-1886), while his great-grandson Grimwald served as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1906 to 1916.





Reinhardt Walhafryd Ballangrud av Bakkerod (1811-1881)
Reinhardt Ballangrud was a politician and diplomat. He was the second Duke of Bakkerod. He served as Prime Minister three times (1846-1855, 1856-1864, and 1871-1876). He was the second son of Hughardt Njall Ballangrud. Reinhardt Ballangrud was elected to the parliament in 1840 at the age of only 29 years old, and following the retirement of Hermann Snorr Hakonsen, he became the leader of the Conservative Party in 1844. He was appointed Prime Minister by King Mannwald III. During his first government, the Charter of Amvkhar was sanctioned, and the Principality of Emrta was established.

In his second government, he consolidated the power of the Conservative Party, effectively ended the influence of the political clans, which had dominated Jugland’s politics since the 18th-century, and which led him to create the Conservative Party.

After the death of Mannwald III in 1875, he failed to gain the confidence of the new monarch, Hramnberaht II, and he would be dismissed as Prime Minister in late 1876. Although he remained as leader of the Conservative Party, his influence declined after 1878, and he did not run for reelection in 1881, retiring from politics. He would die only a few months later, in his native home.

Although he headed the government more years than his father, he struggled to keep the Conservative Party united amid many internal factions. In order to mantain in power, particularly in his second and third governments, he was forced to offer many concessions to both the conservative and moderate factions of the parliament, including the 1875 electoral reform.




Fulberaht Eysteinn Sognnaes (1812-1878)
He was a writer, politician and political thinker. Sognnaes was born in the nobility, but he soon showed a passion for liberal and progressive ideas. He was elected to the parliament in 1849, and joined the Liberal Party. However, he soon became disillusioned about the compromises by Ronningen and the other Liberal Party members. He was one of the founders of the Democratic Party in 1854, although he failed to be reelected to the parliament in 1860. In 1861, he moved back to this native town in northeastern Jugland. There, he continued publishing books, mostly on history, political theory, as well as his memoirs, published posthumously in 1880.

His political ideas evolved from liberalism in his youth to increasingly left-leaning, toward radical democracy and, in his last years, adopting a form of socialism. His parliamentary experienced caused him to dislike liberalism and middle-class values, and he sought authenticity among the peasants, something he was close to achieve in his rural retirement in his last years.

In his final writings, he promoted both socialism and individualism, supported a form of agrarian socialism, in which capitalism would be replaced by small-scale communal living with the protection of individual liberty and a socialist government mostly in charge to protect order and promote cooperatives. He, however, rejected revolutionary socialism.

After his death, there was a great interest in his ideas, and his books were very popular in democratic circles and between the workers movement. However, in the 20th century, his influence declined, as his ideas started to be seen as archaic and obsolete by the largest left-wing and socialist political parties and authors. Although in recent decades there was a growing interests in his writings, mostly in academic circles.

Adalwynda Naess-Schjelderup, a current Juglander politicial and member of the National Assembly, is a distant descendant of Sognnaes.






Lamprecht Braekhus (1809-1898)
Braekhus was a writer and politician, leader of the Liberal Party from 1872 to 1894. He was Prime Minister twice, from 1876 to 1880 and from 1884 to 1886. He also served as minister from 1868 to 1871, during Ronningen's Liberal government.

Braekhus joined the army but retired in 1842, after he suffered a wound that caused him to lose his left arm. During the next years, he travelled through Coft Aranye, Alba Karinya, and Northern Ardia, writing several travel books, which became relatively popular at the time in Jugland. He realized about the growing gap between Jugland and many countries, and became a determined reformer, aimed to the modernization of the country. Although he had admired Rekdal's writings in his youth, he moved to the left in his 30s, although he was not a radical. Braekhus gained the confidence of Ronningen, after the former joined the parliament in 1847. Although he was not one of the founders of the Liberal Party, he officially became a member in 1859. He served in Ronningen's administration (1868 and 1871) and replaced Ronningen as leader of the Liberal Party in 1872.

Unlike Ronninger, Braekhus was not shy to publicize his own ideas. In the 1850s and 1860s, he published several books -most of them, collection of essays that he published in liberal and moderate newspapers, exposing his ideas. He tried to convince the public, and in particular the cultural and economic elite, of the need of important reforms for the development of the monarchy and the advancement of the science required for such task. He was not shy in his defense of a constitutional government for Jugland. He, however decried revolution and always worked in the framework of the Juglander monarchy.

Although his governments were able to pass more reforms than the first Liberal government, he faced increasingly social turmoil and political division, particularly during his second government (1884-1886). Although the several electoral reforms increased the influence of the Liberal Party in the parliament, it also mobilized more radical groups which demanded democracy and political rights. Already in his 70s, Braekhus was seen as part of the political establishment, and his younger left-leaning political rivals had not the patience that the Liberals demanded. His government's ban of public political meetings in 1886, led to violent crash between the militarized police and supporters of the Menneskarr Movement, which defended democratic and republican ideas, resulted in more than fifty casualties in Albrektberg. Two weeks after, he was forced to resign. He continued as leader of the Liberal Party until 1894.




Hildebrandt Wyne Holman (1812-1875)
Hildebrandt W. Holman was a philosopher and political thinker. He was born in Morkhaven, a small town nearby Amvkhar. His grandfather and his father were religious magistrates. He graduated in Law in Amvkhar and moved to Albrektberg in 1836, where he continued his studies in Philosophy and Natural Science. In Albrektberg, he joined republican circles. However, in 1841 he moved back to Amvkhar, where he married Albyna Hareide. In 1847, he started to write for a local liberal newspaper. In 1849, he was offered to be correspondent for the newspaper -he initially wrote literary reviews-, and lived abroad until 1854.

When he returned to Jugland, he felt disappointed about the political climate and the lack of initiatives of both the Liberal Party and the democratic groups. He was fired from the newspaper after he wrote an article criticizing the monarchy. By that time, Holman was not only a republican but, influenced by foreign authors, also a socialist. He met Sognnaes in 1856, although Holman was rather disappointed about the meeting (Sognnaes did not mention Holman in his memoirs, although he negatively reviewed a book pubished by Holman a few years later). Unlike Sognnaes, Holmas justified revolutionary action to achieve socialism. Holman kept contact with members of the Democratic Party, although he was never a member.

Holman considered history a product of the struggle of races, nation, and classes. He was familiarized with Marxist literature and he was sympathetic toward communism but considered that same factors would operated under socialism. He was forced to exile in 1869, after one of his books was banned by the authorities and a legal process against him was initiated for "promoting immorality" and "corrupting the mind of the youth". He would never return to Jugland, and he would die in 1875.







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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #11 on: June 11, 2021, 03:25:52 PM »
History: Important People of Jugland (4)




Hrodgarr Ortwyn Northug (1822-1898)
Hrodgarr Northug was a writer and theologian. He graduated on Natural Sciences and Theology in Nordheim. He moved to Albrektberg where he continued his religious studies and in 1859, he would become Klok or religious magistrate. In the 1860s and 1870s, he achieved notoriety as a polemicist, for his articles written in his brother's newspaper. He became a close advisor of Prime Minister Hughardt Grimseth in 1880 and joined Baldwyn Solberg-Hakomsen's government in 1881-1883, where he tried to revert many reforms of the previous Liberal governments.

In 1884, he joined the Royal Juglander Academy Sciences. He continued concerned about political affairs, however, and he continued to write in conservative newspapers about political issues. His most famous work was "Elements of Theology", in which he denounced both secularism and atheism. He was a monarchist, although he became disillusioned about the political future of Jugland in his last years. He published "Thoughts on the Past, the Present, and the Future" (1894), his last works, which was later considered prophetic in conservative circles in early 20th century, in which he denounced democracy, liberalism, and socialism, and called to roll back to an absolute monarchy as form of government. He ended convinced that constitutional government inevitably leads to a socialist state. Controversially, however, he also proposed to restore elective monarchy.




Grimwald Hagen (1828-1889)
Grimwald Hagen was a journalist, writer, and politician. His family moved to Emrta in 1844. He graduated in Natural Sciences and Philosophy in the Royal College of Amvkhar. However, he was not interested in academic life. Instead, he started a career as journalist, writing for several liberal newspapers. He also published poems in literary reviews.

In 1859, he joined the Democratic Party. He was heavily influenced by Fulberaht Eysteinn Sognnaes, promoting agrarian collectivism and radical liberalism. He was elected to the parliament in 1864, being reelected in 1865, 1868, 1871, 1875. He was the leader of the Democratic Party from 1866 to 1878. Although he was a virulent polemicist, as Sognnaes, he also opposed the idea of a violent revolution.

Although he continued to publish books and articles on political theory and history, his influence in the Democratic Party declined in his last years, particularly after the creatio nof the Federation of Communist Workers, the first Marxist political party in Jugland, in 1884, which was joined by some of the most radical members of the Democratic Party, and the creation of the Socialist Party one year after his death. In the decade after his death, the Democratic Party would move toward a more liberal-progressive orientation.

During the short-lived Republic of Jugland, he was venerated as a forefather of the first republican government in modern Jugland, and many statues were built in his memory. However, most of them did not survive after the monarchy was restored in 1906. In his lifetime, Hagen gained respect, even by some of his enemies, for his oratory skills and the vivid style of his historical and political books. However, his popularity declined in the following decades, as his historical writings started to be seen as political pamphlets, while his political ideas were seen as either unpractical or obsolete.




Waramund Gerhnod Bjork (1832-1918)
Waramund Bjork was born in southwestern Jugland. He came from a family of middle-class landowners. His father was a leading Juglander literary critic and historian. In his youth, he was heavily influenced by his uncle Ekkehardt Othmarr, who was a member of the Liberal Party and served as minister from 1868 to 1871. He moved to Albrektberg in 1851, where he enrolled in the Royal College of Albrektberg, where he studied Law and accounting. Unwilling to continue with the family business back home, he moved to Sandberg in 1856, where he started to work in the public administration.

Meanwhile, he started to publish articles on Juglander history and social sciences. In Sandberg, he started to gain reputation as a lecturer in public conferences, where he often discussed economic ideas. He was a sympathizer of the Liberal Party, supporting a constitutional monarchy as ideal form of government. However, he disliked the free-trade theories defended by the leaders of the Liberal Party. Bjork promoted a protectionist economic policy as the only way to develop Jugland and build a prosperous national industry.

He moved to Albrektberg in 1873. He was professor of Administration and Political Ideas in the Royal College of Albrektberg from 1874 to 1877. In 1879, he joined the Ministry of Finance. He was promoted as ministerial under-secretary in 1886. In 1898, he served for six months as Minister of Administration and Public Works in Fredenand Kjelling's government, which included both members of the Conservative and Liberal parties.

During his time in Albrektberg, Bjork was briefly interested in socialist literature. However, he ended rejecting socialism as he considered that it was not a very practical political ideology. Bjork was a nationalist, promoting both economic protectionism and national self-interest. He felt that economic theories were too abstract, as they failed to consider that it was the nation and the family the base of an economy, not the individual or the humanity as a whole.

Bjork was not involved politically in the end of the monarchy and the establishment of a republican government in 1901. After his time as minister, he had returned to Sandberg. During that time, he seemed to be mostly concerning in researching in his book about the economic history of Jugland, which would eventually published in 1917. He did not support any political party at the time.

However, in 1905 he returned to Albrektberg, where he served as Minister of Finance for sixteen months. He attempted to estabilize the economy, but he failed to do so as he struggled to deal with the increasing political tensions, a growing wave of strikes, as well as the effects of the radical agrarian reform enforced by the previous republican government. In 1906 he moved to Sandberg. Two months later, the Republic of Jugland would collapse following a coup d'etat. Bjork was arrested in 1907 but he would be released two months later.




Gautberaht Hermann Lillefjell (1848-1921)
Gautberaht Lillefjell was a writer and social reformer. He was born in a wealthy family. He moved abroad in 1868 where he enrolled in several universities. He returned to Jugland in 1874, where he did a doctorate in law. He is considered one of the founders of sociology in Jugland, publishing many scientific articles and books. He moved to Amvkhar in 1879. He was professor of Social Science in the Royal College of Amvkhar from 1881 to 1894.

During the monarchy, Lillefjell was a sympathizer of the Liberal Party, although he was never involved politically. He funded and created several schools in both Emrta and his native town. He served as Minister of Education in Godehardt Kraggerud's government in 1895-1896. During the Republic of Jugland, he would be elected to the national parliament in 1902, as the candidate of a moderate party. He joined the government as Minister of Trade 1903, although he was only two months in office, as the government collapsed and it was replaced by a more radical republican government.

He was not active politically in the last years of the republic and the first year of the monarchy, although he was appointed Minister of Education in 1914, being the only person to have served as ministers in the reign of Godric IV, the Republic of Jugland and the reign of Theudbald again. He left the government in 1917, and he returned to Amvkhar, where he would die.




Sigeweard Lovoll (1852-1914)
Sigeweard Lovoll was a lawyer, politician, and socialist activist, known for being the founder of the Socialist Party.

Lovoll studied in the universities of Kaninheim and Sandberg. From 1876 and 1881, he worked as a lawyer for a law firm in Hunnund, western Jugland. He moved to Albrektberg, where he started his political career. He was elected to the parliament in 1884 as a candidate of the Democratic Party, although he was not reelected. His opposition with the leadership of the Democratic Party would increase until 1887, when Lovell and several of his supporters would be expelled from the Democratic Party.

In 1890, he founded the Socialist Party, which was joined by a large number of Democratic Party members. The Socialist Party, however, although it had an increasing growth of members in the next decade, it failed to be politically relevant, and it had only one member in the parliament when it was dissolved in 1900. He was a member of the parliament during the Republic of Jugland. After the fall of the republic, he would be arrested and sentenced to ten years of imprisonment. He was, however, released in 1912. He continued as leader of the Socialist Party until 1914, although his leadership had a mostly honorary role since 1908.

During his lifetime, particularly from 1890 to his death, Lovoll was the most famous and influencial socialist author in Jugland. He published many books and articles on socialist theory as well as political pamphlets. However, more scholars consider him as a popularizer of the ideas of others rather than an innovator. He supported the idea of a peaceful and bloodless revolution, although the Socialist Party was rather surprised with the end of the monarchy in 1901, and they had a rather limited role during the Republic of Jugland (1901-1906). In 1904, the Socialist Party obtained 24 seats, their best result, and they never joined the government during the republic.

Unlike Marxist authors, Lovell rejected the idea that socialism would imply the eventual abolition of the state, and considered the state as an independent political entity, a necessary instrument for the achievement and protection of a socialist classless society.

The Socialist Party would be banned in 1906, and it remained an underground organization until 1931, when it was allowed to register as a legal political party again. However, the membership of the Socialist Party had declined in the 1920s, and Lovell's ideas and books had a much more limited influence after his death.




Adelmarr Hughardt Ostensen (1864-1914)
Adelmarr Ostensen was a historian and politician, who played an important role in the last years of the monarchy and the republican period.

He studied in the State University of Albrektberg, where he graduated in law. In 1891, at the age of 27, he published his first book on Medieval Jugland. He was elected to the parliament in 1895 as a candidate of the Liberal Party. Unlike other politicians from the Liberal Party, he did not oppose the abolition of the monarchy in 1901 (although he had not publically supported republican ideas in the past either). He served as Minister of Justice in the first republican government. In the 1901 legislative election, he was elected to the parliament as an independent candidate. He joined the Democratic Party in 1902, and he served as Minister of War in 1904-1905 in the so-called radical republican government. After that, he left the Democratic Party and created his own political party, the Republican Liberal Party. Although the Republican Liberal Party only obtained 20 seats, he was appointed President of the national government in late 1905, although his government only lasted three months.

The 1906 coup d'etat that ended the Republic of Jugland surprised him in Sandberg. He immediately fled the country. He was allowed to return to Jugland in 1912. He would not be involved in politics again and he started to write his memoirs, but death surprised him in early 1914.

During the Republic of Jugland, Ostensen was considered a moderate, and he was strongly opposed socialism, although he was a pragmatist and negotiated with radical republican leaders when he needed to achieve his political objectives, which caused him to be extensively despised by conservative and right-wing sectors. Historians, as well as the public in general, are divided between those who consider him a stateman and those who consider him mostly an opportunist.






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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #12 on: June 20, 2021, 03:07:16 PM »
History: Important People of Jugland (5)





Erhardt Ragnvaldr Tvedt (1865-1923)
Erhardt Tvedt was a Juglander politician, the last President of the Republic of Jugland.

Although he had been a member of the Conservative Party before the 1901 republican revolution, serving as representative in Hunnund town council, Tvedt showed a moderate support to the new regime and he was elected to the parliament in 1902, as candidate of a center-right republican party. He served as Minister of Finance for six months in 1903. He was elected as candidate of the Republican Liberal Party in 1904, although his relation with the party leadership soon soured after the election, and he was rather considered an independent MP than part of the Republican Liberal parliamentary group. He served as Minister of Justice in 1905.

In 1906, Tvedt was elected President of the Republic, as part of a coalition that included center-right and moderate political parties. He resigned as president after a coup d’etat by a group of military forces. His resignation, prompted a quick collapse of the republican regime and paved the way toward the restoration of the monarchy.

During the time, many republican and left-leaning leaders believed that he knew in advance about the preparations of a coup d’etat against the republic. However, recent historical research, although it is clear that the republican government was aware of possible conspirations by military officers, Tvedt was not part in the conspiration, and his decision to resign was rather motivated by his wish to avoid a bloodbath or even a possible civil war in the country.

He was arrested and served two years in jail, being released in 1909. In the next years, he did not participate in politics, rather publishing several novels and plays, often inspired in historical events. He launched “Konstitusjonisten”, a center-right and democratic newspaper, in which he was directly involved until his death, in 1923. The newspaper would disappear in 1928.




Hugleikrarr Godric Vinjen (1871-1931)

Hugleikrarr Vinjen was a journalist and politician. He was President of the Republic of Jugland from 1904 to 1905.

After he graduated in the university, he started a career as journalist in the 1890s, writing for several liberal newspapers. He was not politically at the time, as he wrote mostly about cultural events and literary reviews. However, after the monarchy was proclaimed, he joined a democratic newspaper and his articles became more political. He was convinced by (Wigburg Bjorneboe) to run in the 1902 election as an independent with the support of the Democratic Party.

From 1902 to 1904 he joined several governments, serving as Minister of Education, Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Minister of Trade. He was elected in the 1904 election as a candidate of the National Progressive Party, a small center-left political party. He was elected the same year as President of the Republic of Jugland, in a radical republican coalition government which included ministers from the Democratic Party and left-leaning social reformers. His government introduced many reforms, included an agrarian reform and several laws advancing secularism, as well as some welfare policies. The government, however, collapsed in 1905 and it was replaced by a government dominated by center-right parties.

He was arrested after the coup d’etat that brought the republic to an end and he was sentenced 20 years to jail. He was released in 1924. After his release, he would publish several books and political pamphlets, although he was not a member of any political party and he did not run to office again.




Othmarr Fulberaht Hoel-Gimsen (1858-1949)
Othmarr Hoel-Gimsen was a Navy officer and politician, he had an instrumental role in both the end of the monarchy in 1901 and the end of the Republic of Jugland in 1906.

Although he was not part of the conspiracy that brought the end of the Kingdom of Jugland and the proclamation of the republic in 1901, he declared loyalty to the Albrektberg authorities following the abdication of Godric IV, which effectively ended the opposition inside the military to the new regime.

During the republic, Hoel-Gimsen raised to the rank of Commander of the Navy, effectively becoming the second highest-ranking military officer in the country by the end of the republic. However, by 1904 he became disappointed by the republican regime. He was allegedly in contact with several military officers that were part in the 1906 coup d’etat that brought to an end of the republic, although again, he did take part in the coup itself. However, he was instrumental to convince President Erhardt Tvedt to resign, effectively ending the monarchy.

After the coup, he would head the new Provisional Government. He personally received Theudbald III, and signed the decree that restored the Kingdom of Jugland. However, six days after Theudbald’s coronation, he was forced to resign and Baron Colmund Edin-Barthold was appointed as Prime Minister, as the monarch and his circle did not trust Hoel-Gimsen.

Despite calls by some of the most hardliner monarchists to judge for his role in the republican revolution, he was cleared of all charges by a military court. He retired from armed forces in 1908. He joined the Liberal Party in the 1920s, although he was not active in politics. He died in 1949, his funeral was attended by Prime Minister Osgard Hunstad-Nordby, which caused a small stir in the media.




Reinhardt Heimarr Nordraak (1859-1941)
Reinhardt Heimarr Nordraak joined the armed forced 1876. Until 1902, he remained in the military, achieving the rank of Major. In late 1901, he was investigated by the military authority on assisting anti-republican para-military groups but he was cleared of all charges. In 1903, he left the armed forces and left Jugland.

He exiled in Eskdale, where he convinced Baron Eversen av Hereide, who was leading a group of exiled Juglander monarchists in the country, to fund “Stemme”, an ultra-conservative newspaper. Still in Eskdale, he founded his own political organization, the Patriotic Union (later renamed as Patriotic League), along other 100 monarchist sympathizers.

In 1905, after the collapse of the radical republican government, he came back to Jugland. Stemme became soon the official newspaper of his movement. The Patriotic League, considered a far-right organization by many, actively supported the 1906 coup d’etat against the republican government.

Nordraak was member of the parliament from 1908 to 1937. In 1916, he was appointed Prime Minister by King Theudbald III. His government only lasted 22 months, as his attempts to restrict the powers of the local governments, which Nordraak felt they were being used by banned left-wing parties to promote opposition to the monarchy, backfired. He was replaced by Gautberaht Leonhardsen, from the Conservative Party.

He resigned as leader of the Patriotic League in 1922, although he remained the chairman of the Patriotic League until his death. Wydukind Hansen replaced him as leader of the radical party. In 1926-1927, Hansen would become the second and last Patriotic League Prime Minister.

The Patriotic League would join several conservative governments in the 1940s and 1950s, however, it entered a declining afterwards. They were elected to the Juglander parliament for last time in 1960, and it was finally dissolved in 1987.




Oswald Eadwald Russlatten (1862-1938)
Oswald Russlatten was a politician and leader of the Democratic Party.

Russlatten served as member of the parliament from 1896 to 1906. He became leader of the Democratic Party in 1902, and he served as minister in several governments during the Republic of Jugland.

After the republic was dissolved, he was arrested and sentenced to jail for 20 years. He would not be released until 1919. In 1922, he was elected as leader of the Democratic Party for a second time, after the Democratic Party was allowed to register as a legal party again. However, the Democratic Party was rather a marginal time by then. He resigned as leader of the Democratic Party in 1926. In 1928, he stood unsuccessfully for Mayor in Albrektberg. He obtained only 2% of the vote, even being surpassed by other left-leaning candidates, as the Socialist Party or an independent candidate supported by the Revolutionary Party. His political career had effectively ended.

In 1929, the Democratic Party would be officially dissolved after failed to gain any seats in the parliament for second time. A year later, he joined the Liberal Party, although he never stood as candidate for the Liberal Party. He published “My Word” in 1935, which was purposedly both a memoirs and a political manifesto. The book caused some stir in the media, particularly in the Left which denounced his positions and events depicted in the book. Russlatten did not renounce his republican ideals, although at the end of his life he accepted a constitutional monarchy as the most realistic political framework for Jugland.

He died in 1938, although his death went mostly unnoticed by both the media and the general public.







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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #13 on: June 21, 2021, 03:25:45 PM »

History: Important People of Jugland (6)




Lamprecht Cynebald Proysen (1852-1914)
Lamprecht Proysen was a theologian and politician. As his father, he became a religious magistrate after graduating in Natural Sciences and Theology in the University of Sandberg. From 1888 to 1897, he lived nearby Konndal, where he was the administrator of a local temple. Before the proclamation of the Republic of Jugland, he was known mostly as the author of "Against the Messiah" (1898), which was written as an attempt to refutate Christianism, as he was concerned about the increasing of that religion in Jugland at the time. However, he was not a conservative, and he had been a sympathizer of the Liberal Party, although he was not politicially active during the monarchy.

In 1900, he moved back to Sandberg, where he joined a religious college. In 1901, he was elected to the new parliament as an independent candidate from Sandberg. He played an important role in the constitutional debates. He founded the Moderate Party (not to be confused with the party of the same name that existed from 2019 to 2021), which sought to combine liberalism, nationalism, and peaceful socialism, aiming to propose social reform to prevent class struggle. The Moderate Party was not successful and only obtained a few seats in the several parliaments of the republican period. However, Proysen was elected Speaker of the parliament in 1902. The republican constitution had established a Presidency, which would combine the head of state and the head of government in the same person, and which would be indirectly elected by the parliament. Given the parliamentary division of the time, this caused weak presidents with short-lived governments. On other hand, this gave Proysen a huge influence, who as Speaker of the parliament had a considerably influence in political negotiations.

However, Proysen would resigned as Speaker of the Assembly in 1905, in protest against a law by the government which had approved to cease any state funding to religious temples, although he continued as member of the parliament. For his prominent role as Speaker of the republican parliament, he was sentenced in 1906 to serve a 20 years in jail. However, Albrektberg High Court reduced the sentences to 2 years of jail and 10 years of house arrest. The Moderate Party was disbanded in 1906, and most of their members joined the Liberal Party. In his last years, he wrote mostly on history and religion. Still under house arrest, Proysen died in 1914.




Giselmunda Asdys Warina Motland Sandemose av Slettenland (1861-1925)
Giselmunda Sandemose was a writer, journalist, politician, and feminist activist from Jugland. She came from a noble family, as Baron Sandemose av Slettenland's elder daughter. She did not attend the university, but she had a very highly advanced education, particularly in humanisties and natural sciences, thanks to tutors that his father hired for her private lessons. By 1890, Sandemose -as she was known- had already published three novels, several poetry collection, and two literary essays.

She had married in 1878, but had her first children only in 1886. Her husband was a lawyer and a Liberal Party local politician. After the death of her husband in 1896, she and her family moved to Albrektberg, where she started a career as journalist, as well as founding her own publishing house, which published mostly literary and education books. She wrote often in newspapers defending the access of women to instruction, including the access of women to high education. Along Steinnunna Karlsen, Sandemose was one of the founders of the suffragette movement in Jugland.

She was elected to the parliament in 1902, as candidate of the Liberal Alliance, formed by former members of the Liberal Party, becoming the first woman to be elected to a national parliament in the history of Jugland, despite she could not vote for herself, as women had no right to vote at the time. In the parliament, she focused mostly on women's rights and education issues. For her political labor, he faced opposition in the media. In the 1904, she was reelected, this time as candidate of the Moderate Party. After long debates, the republican finally passed a resolution establishing women's suffrage for all women aged 30 y.o. and married women aged 21 y.o.. However, women were not able to vote as the Republican of Jugland ceased to exist in 1906 following a coup d'etat. In the first parliamentary elections in 1908, only male suffrage was allowed. Women's right to vote will not be effectively achieved until 1948, under Prime Minister Osgard Hunstad-Nordby's government.

In 1911, Sandemose would return to his native home, although she would continue to publish several novels and plays, and continued to write on women's rights, publicating several essays, very influencial in the women's movement of the time. She often supported the Liberal Party, although increasingly disappointed about lack of progress in women's rights in the next decade.




Gebhardt Andeberaht Hammerseng (1876-1923)
Gebhardt Hammerseng was a writer, philosopher, and socialist activist. He was a leading member of the Juglander cooperative movement in the early 20th century, although he moved to the right in his last years.

In 1894, he joined the Socialist Party. After meeting Sigivald Nordberg in 1896, he started to write for "Arbeidside", the official newspaper of the General Federation of Workers, the largest union in Jugland at the time. In 1899, he joined Sandberg university, where he taught metaphysics and psychology. He continued teaching in the university until 1907, when he would be officially expelled and banned for teaching.

His most famous work is “Socialism and Society”, in which he exposed his concept of “communalization”, in which workers would directly take the means of production in order to manage them by their own and replace capitalism in a new socialist system. He also tried to build bridges between the unions and the cooperative movement. He was invited to the first congress of the Revolutionary Party. However, he became increasingly skeptical of state socialism. His rejection of Marxism would lead his work to influence leading members of the anarchist movement in Jugland. In the early 1920s, he would move increasingly toward nationalist positions, and we would participate in anti-communist campaigns shortly before his death in 1923.




Hramnberaht Reinhardt Kjusen (1874-1946)
Hramnberaht Reinhardt Kjusen was a political activist, journalist and economist.

Kjusen was born in Haugefjord in 1874, the son of a jeweller. He moved to Amvkhar in 1894, where he graduated in National University of Amvkhar. In 1898, he published his research on the local working movement. In 1900, he became professor of Sociology and Statistics in the State College of Gronbukt, in eastern Jugland. During the Republic of Jugland, he stayed on Gronbukt, and published several works on economic history, as well as writing biographies for an academic encyclopedia. He often wrote on political issues in the local media, but he was not active in politics.

He moved back to Amvkhar in 1911, becoming a lecturer on Economics in the National University of Amvkhar. He started to write articles for newspapers associated with the working movement and left-leaning magazines, very often on economic and socialist theory. During a travel to Albrektberg, he met Yngvildra Ulvestad and Johann Albrekt Ostensen, leading members of the Revolutionary Party. Soon afterwards, he started to write for newspapers close to the Revolutionary Party. In the 1930s, his academic work became increasingly political. However, he was disappointed when the Revolutionary Party adopted Marxism as their official ideology in 1931, becoming supportive of communist governments abroad.

In 1937, Kjusen moved back to Gronbukt. He influenced Sigeweard Franck (1901-1970), who was leader of the United Labour Party (established in 1949 as a merger of the Socialist Party and the Labour Party) from 1949 to 1967, whom he met while Franck was working for a law firm in Gronbukt.




Fredenand Othmarr Wetten-Sondral (1891-1959)
Fredenand Wetten-Sondral was a philosopher, diplomat, and politician. He was born in an aristocratic but liberal family. His father was elected to the parliament during the Republic of Jugland as a candidate of the Liberal Party.

In 1915, he started a career in diplomat, serving as attaché in several countries. He was elected to the parliament in 1936, as a Liberal Party candidate. He, however, shifted to the Conservative Party in 1940. He was Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1942 to 1945 and from 1951 to 1955. He resigned from the parliament in 1956, and joined the Royal Academy of Sciences.

Wetten-Sondral is mostly known for his philosophical and political writings. He formulated his “philosophical naturalism” in several philosophical books, which has influenced several Juglander philosophers and theologians. Besides his metaphysical works, his most famous book was “Meditation on Social Life”, which combines ontology and ethics. In his political works he defended the values of meritocratic liberalism and constitutional government, although he also defended some conservative ideas. Controversially, he opposed women’s suffrage. He also opposed socialism and communism in his writings. He is considered by many the most important Juglander philosopher of the 20th century.

He died in 1959, while preparing his completed works.




Wassyga Eydys Ulvestad (1890-1964)
Wassyga Ulvestad, or "Wassa" Ulvestad as she was commonly known, was a politician and advocate for women's rights.

Ulvestad was born in a small town nearby Branborg. His father was a schoolmaster while her mother came from a middle-class family from Haugefjord. The family moved to Haugefjord in 1904, and Wassyga Ulvestad was educated at Haugefjord State College for Women. While in school she established contacts with the Socialist Party.

After graduating, she married Klaus Gradamsen in 1911, who was a Socialist Party militant and twenty-four years her senior. However, Gradamsen was arrested in 1912, and Ulvestad went to exile in Heyra. She lived there until 1916, returning to Jugland in 1919. In 1920, she started a career as journalist, and became active in the women's movement. From 1921 to 1929, she published four books on women'r rights, and was active in the 1933-1935 campaign for women's suffrage. She joined the Revolutionary Party (which had been founded in 1904 as a split of the radical wing of the Socialist Party) in 1927, and was also active in the General Federation of Workers.

As most members in the Revolutionary Party at the time, Ulvestad was increasingly influenced by Marxism. In 1931, the Revolutionary Party adopted Marxism as official ideology. Ulvestad stood as parliamentary candidate in the 1932, 1935, and 1937 elections. The Revolutionary Party moved toward Marxist-Leninist and changed its name in 1939, being renamed as the Communist Party of Jugland.

Ulvestad was again active in the campaign for women's suffrage, which was finally achieved in 1948, under a Liberal Party government. She stood as candidate of the Revolutionary Party in 1951 -the first ones in which the Revolutionary Party was allowed to register-, being finallly elected to the parliament in 1955. She remained a member of the parliament until her death, in 1964.

Ulvestad was elected General Secretary of the Communist Party in 1961, becoming the first women to ever lead a parliamentary group in Jugland. She was replaced by Hermann Oppgaard (1892-1993), who remained as leader of the Communist Party until 1982, endorsing a policy of "peaceful revolution toward communism".

Ulvestad wrote more than 27 books, most of them dealing with the women's movement, socialist theory, as well as collections of her political pamphlets and speeches.












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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #14 on: June 22, 2021, 10:21:24 AM »

History: Important People of Jugland (7)




Herewardt Bjornstad (1874-1965)

Herewardt Bjornstad was a politician, leader of the Conservative Party from 1940 to 1955. He was Prime Minister twice (1940-1945 and 1951-1955).

Bjornstad graduated in Law and Constitutional Studies in the University of Sandberg. He did not do the military service as consequence of respiratory problems he had suffered since childhood.

In 1903, he became professor of Philosophy of Law in the University of Nordheim. He was not politically active during the Republic of Jugland, rather dedicated to academic life. From 1912 to 1918, he travelled through several countries. He was a member of the Conservative Party. In 1921, he was elected to the parliament for first time, as a candidate in Sandberg.

He served as Minister of Justice in Leobwyn Ekeberg's first Conservative government (1925-1926). He became a close associate and confident of the Prime Minister. He served as Minister of Foreign Affairs in Ekeberg's second and third governments (1927-1929 and 1935-1937). Ekeberg had become Prime Minister for a second time after the fall of Wydukind Hansen's government, the second and last Prime Minister from the ultra-conservative Patriotic League. Hansen had lost the confidance of the monarch after his foreign policy was esteemed increasingly sympathizing toward the Ardian Empire.

As Foreign Minister, he implement a foreign policy officially known as "active neutrality", which established that foreign governments should not judge positively or negatively the governments or changes in government of other states, as such an action would imply a breach of national sovereignty. Such policy implied that upon the establishment of de facto governments in other countries, Jugland would not support giving recognition because it considered that it would weaken Jugland interests when deciding about the legality and legitimacy of those foreign governments. As a government, Jugland did not withdraw its recognition of those governments that were formed through a coup d'etat or violent revolution. Only in certain situations, typically under communist regimes, Jugland withdrew its diplomatic mission. The "active neutrality" was inspired in the principle of non-intervention, considering that Jugland should not make judgements, positive or negative, about the governments or the changes in governments of other nation. The policy was aimed to strengthen the position of the Kingdom of Jugland, and avoid conflict with more powerful nations.

Bjornstad continued as Minister of Foreign Affairs under Othmarr Sperrevik's government, from 1937 to 1940, and after his resignation, he became leader of the Conservative Party and Prime Minister from 1940 to 1945. Despite losing the 1945 and 1949 elections, he continued as leader of the Conservative Party and would become Prime Minister for a second time in 1951. Four years later, he resigned as consequences of health problems, being replaced by Raymond Aamodt-Vikingstad, the Minister of Home Affairs.

Bjornstad did not run for reelection in 1960, and he would die in 1965. However, the foreign policy established by him would survive him during most of the existance of the Kingdom of Jugland.

Bjornstad influenced several generations of Juglander politicians, and his foreign policy was followed by most of Juglander governments, with only a few exceptions. Burkhardt Kvalheim, Minister of Foreign Affairs (2020-2021) and current Secretary of Foreign Affairs is said to be an admirer of Bjornstad.




Hrafnhildra Iduuna Haavelmo (1925-2006)

Hrafnhildra I. Haavelmo was a lawyer and politician. She became the first woman to serve as a Minister in the Kingdom of Jugland.

Born in Nammes, Haavelmo graduated in Law and Administration in the National University of Amvkhar. She completed her studies in the National University of Albrektberg with three courses on constitutional theory and commercial law. In 1954, she started to work in her uncle's law firm. She became a state lawyer in 1959.

She was a member of the Liberal Party, and she was appointed Minister of Housing and Public Works in the Liberal government of Lamprecht Lovland (1966-1969). She was elected to the parliament in 1969. However, Lovland was defeated by the candidate of the Conservative Party, Ulrich Bredesen. She continued as member of the parliament until 1977. Although Lovland became Prime Minister for a second time in 1973, Haavelmo did not join the government this time. Instead, he became spokesperson in the Commission of Justice and Administrative Reforms.

In 1979, she became professor of Law and Constitutional Law in the Royal Albrektberg College. She retired in 1996. She died in 2006 as consequence of a cancer.




Theudbald Njall Stenseth (1939-2020)

Theudbald Stenseth was a politician. He was the founder and leader of the People's Party, a republican political party.

In his youth, Stenseth had been a member of the Communist Party. He had graduated in History in the State College of Gronbukt. He was schoolteacher from 1964 to 1977.

He had joined the United Labour Party in 1969, and was elected mayor of Gronbukt in 1978. However, he became incresingly disgruntled by the national leadership of the United Labour Party, and left the party in 1984. He founded his own political party, the People's Party. He failed to be reelected in 1986, although he was elected to the national parliament in 1991. He remained a member of the parliament until 2009.

Stenseth's People's Party was a radical left-leaning political party. Although it was not a socialist party, the party expanded and consolidated at that the same time that the Communist Party increased their decline. The People's Party was an openly republican party, which combined nationalism with support toward welfare policies, and a center-left orientation on social policy. However, unless other left-wing political parties, it was not an openly secular political party, being Stenseth himself a religious person. The People's Party was particularly stronger in eastern and southeastern Jugland, as well as some rural areas in the northwestern provinces.

The People's Party consolidated their presence in the national parliament in the late 1990s, obtaining 49 seats in the 2000 election, their best result in a legislative elections. After the Liberal Party stopped to support Alaric Aukrust's government in 2009, Stenseth joined the government, as well as other People's Party members, becoming Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Administrative Affairs. It was the first time since the restoration of the Kingdom of Jugland that an openly republican political party had joined the national government. However, the left-wing coalition did not last long, as King Engelhardt III asked Aukrust to resign and dissolved the parliament six weeks later. This prompted the 2009 constitutional crisis, which led to a constitutional reform in 2010, increasing the executive powers of the monarch.

Stenseth, already 75 years old, attempted to lead the protests in 2014, but he found himself marginalized, and the influence of the People's Party quickly faded away, divided in many factions. Stenseth was arrested in 2015, but he was released in 2017. He left Jugland and in early 2020 he died in the Republic of Fleur.




King Engelhardt III (1940-2014)

Engelhardt was crowned King Engelhardt III of Jugland in 1972, when he was still 31 years old , after the death of his father. His 42-year reign would eventually become the most convoluted since the restoration of the Kingdom of Jugland, as the country descended into conflict and civil war at the end of his reign.

He studied Law and Administration in the Royal Albrektberg College. After completing military service, he completed his studies, graduating in International Relations and History. Preparing for his future role as Juglander monarch, he started a tour abroad through several countries when the sudden death of his father, King Gerlach IV surprised him.

During his reign, Jugland experienced increasingly accelerating changes, from a cultural, political, economic, and social point of view. In 1986, Gautberaht Northug, from the center-left United Labour Party, became Prime Minister of Jugland. At the end of Northug's term, in 1991, the relationship between the monarch and the Prime Minister allegedly worsened considerably, which made the king wary when the United Labour Party came back to power in 2008. After Alakrust, instead of calling snap elections decided to include anti-monarchist ministers in his cabinet, King Engelhardt III forced him to resign and dissolved the parliament. A constitutional crisis followed, and Engelhardt III imposed a constitutional reform through the Upper House, increasing his executive power.

A succession of several short-lived governments did not improve the situation, and the government faced an economic stagnation which led to a wave of protests in 2013-2014. By late 2013, Engelhardt III fell severy ill, while a failed attempt to repress the protests by the  government, particularly in the eastern provinces, which were hit by a wave of deadly riots, eventually moved the country toward armed conflict. Engelhardt died a few months later, being succeded by his son Khrym, who inherited a nation in an unprecedented crisis.




Alaric Aukrust (1954)

Alaric Aukrust was a politician, leader of the United Labour Party from 1999 to 2012, and Prime Minister from 2008 and 2009.

Aukrust was a long-serving member of the center-left United Labour Party, which he joined when he was a teenager. He graduated in Law in the University of Nordheim, and started his political career soon after finishing his university studies. He was elected to the national parlaiment in 1990, during the government of Gautberaht Northug, who led the first United Labour Party government in Jugland.

In 1999, he won the leadership contest and became leader of the United Labour Party. After several failed attempts, the United Labour Party was the largest political party in the parliament in the 2008 election, although it failed to obtain a large enough majority. After long negotiations, Aukrust was elected Prime Minister under a United Labour Party minority government with the support of the Liberal Party. The government platform was relatively moderate, although with the higher increase in social spending in three decades. A sudden change of leadership in the Liberal Party put the existence of his government in peril. Aukrust reisted, however, and after tense negotiations, he entered in negotiations with the People's Party and a new left-wing coalition was established without the need of snap elections, with the inclusion of four ministers from the People's Party.

However, a few weeks later, King Engelhardt III urged Aukrust to resign, causing a constitutional crisis. Aukrust, however, did not put much resistance, and most of United Labour Party senators decided to boycott the new constitutional reform proposed in the Upper House, instead of voting against them. He continued as leader of the United Labour Party until 2012.

During the 2013-2014 crisis, the United Labour Party urged protesters to respect the constitutional order, despite the increasing authoritarian policies adopted by Hulderic Eggsen and
Fulberaht Hansen-Bergen. The conflict caused the United Labour Party to divide in several factions and organizations, with a increasing fall in the party membership.

Aukrust would be candidate in the 2020 Constituent Assembly election, but he would fail to be elected.






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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #15 on: June 22, 2021, 08:24:33 PM »


History: Juglander civil war (2014-2020)



Background

The Kingdom of Jugland entered in a deep constitutional crisis at the end of the first decade of the 20th century when King Engelhardt III dissolved the parliament and forced a constitutional reform which increased his executive powers. Although the parliament was restored in 2012, Alaric Aukrust's government was replaced by several moderate and right-leaning governments which lacked enough parliamentary and public support, and increasingly depended on the monarch's confidence.

Political protests and complains about economic stagnation and rising food prices combined in the 2013-2014 protests, which were particularly active in the larger towns of the country.The protsts continued during Autumn 2013, and derived in riots in southerneastern and eastern Jugland, where the economic situation had worsened considerably. Riots in Gronbukt, Ngeingta, Mjodde, Hamarrland, and Sandheim turned deadly, leading to the resignation of Prime Minister Farvald Karlsen. He was replaced by Hulderic Eggsen, from the Coalition of Right Forces, a nationalist coalition created once year before, but Eggsen failed to control the situation.


Escalation: 2014-2016

Eggsen was replaced Fulberaht Hansen-Bergen, also from the Coalition of Right Forces, which government would only last another five months. Hramnberaht Floand, the new Prime Minister, aimed to lead a technocratic government, but neither his governments nor the next ones would be able to estabilize the situation. In some towns and provinces, the situation derived in what was described as the appearance of "urban terrorism" and para-military armed groups.

The murder of Godehardt Rudarsen in 2014, a leading politician from Fjellstad, whose authors were never found, with pro-government and anti-government groups accusing each others of being behind the murder, led to a further escalation. By late 2014, several military officers had defected, leading the government to lost control of several towns in the east and southwestern regions, and initiated a larger conflict.

The National Army, which had being founded in late 2013 as a small armed group, consolidated its growth after a few former Juglander military officers and volunteers joined their ranks in 2014, and in September 2014, they had their first victory after forcing the government forces to withdraw from Briskemyr. They established their own local governments, and expanded their territor in the next weeks and months, although they also suffered some devastating defeats in the hands of government forces.

Conservative Party came back to government in early 2015, under Wulfgang Grongstad, who had been Minister of Defense from 2002 to 2008, in a government that included other center-right parties and independent ministers. However, Grongstad failed to estabilize the situation and his government only lasted nine months. He was replaced by Berahtrand Motland, who launched two successive and successful offensives in the southwestern and northeastern regions, regarding territory and forced the National Army to withdraw toward the east. Those victories were futile, as they only devastated the economy and created a huge humanitarian crisis. GDP collapsed by 40% before the end of the year, which as well as increasing isolation of the Kingdom of Jugland complicated the standing of the national government despite the losses caused in the anti-government forces.

Stagnation: 2017-2019

Berahtrand Motland's government was forced to increasingly rely on pro-government para-military and militias, such as the so-called "United League of Independent Counties" in the northeastern region, and was forced to resign in late 2016. He was replaced by Bernhardt Vigeland, a former member of the Liberal Party, which aimed to restore the situation. Eventually, Vigeland negotiated a first ceasefire with the National Army and offered negotiations but this early attempts failed. After the Battle of Ngeingta, in which the government forces suffered an unexpected defeat, Prime Minister Bernhardt Vigeland resigned and was replaced by General Sepp Nupekam.

Main beligerents at the peak of the conflict, around 2018-2019
NameRoyal Armed ForcesNational ArmyUnited LeagueOthers
IdeologyArmed Forces of the Kingdom of JuglandAnti-governmentPro-governmentMostly anti-government
DescriptionThe Royal Armed Forces are the armed forces of the Kingdom of Jugland. The monarch, as head of state of the kingdom, is the commander-in-chiefThe National Army is the armed-wing of the National Coaliton, the main anti-government political movement in JuglandThe so-called United League -officially the "United League of Independent Counties" is a group of militias, associated to the Independent Civic Party. They operate mostly in rural areas, specially in western and central JuglandOther armed groups
Established(current form) in 1906late 201320152012-2019
LeadershipKing Khrym ILars Midtvedt
Fredenand Mohr
Hugleikrarr Michael BartensenUnknown
Military age18 years old18 years old18 years oldUnknown
Total active personnel87,83254,890~5,000~2,000-3,000
Ground forces43,120 military
560 tanks
1,742 IFV/APC
47,340 military
429 tanks
1,498 IFV/APC
~4,800 military
~140 IFV/APC
~2,000-2,800
Air Force30,600 military
248 aircraft
150 helicopters
5,550 military
~80 aircraft
~110 helicopters
~100 military
10 helicopters
Unknown
Navy14,112 military
3 submarines, 2 frigates, 1 corvette
7 auxiliary ships and 3 trainning vessels
35 naval aircraft
~2,000 military
1 auxiliary ship and 1 training vessel
9 naval aircraft
nonenone



Conclusion


After the Ngeingta disaster, General Sepp Nupekam's government seemed to regain control of the situation. His government's "controlled tension" strategy, aimed to combine large-escale military offensives with limited truces and ceasefire and non-political negotiations was controversial but seemed effective enough, at least for a while. By late 2019, the royal government regained control of much of the northern and southeastern provinces, while the war escalated in the central front. However, his increasingly authoritarian government, with a increasing number of people sentenced and executed by military courts, which powers had been expanded under Prime Minister Berahtrand Motland's government, increased tensions inside, as well a controversial foreign policy, which increased economic dependance on Lakhzovia and a closer relation with Tamora's government.

A wave of protests, started by student organizations demanding free elections and peace negotiations to end the war, were met with repressive force by Nupekam's government. Meanwhile, he launched two successful and large offensives toward the southeast and northeastern regions, aimed to isolate the National Army. However, the offensives had the effect of weakening the central front, which allowed the National Army -not without huge losses, to break the front and getting closer to Albrektberg provinces.

On June 2020, protests restarted in Emrta, which would escalate to a military insurrection after a mutiny in the Royal Navy surprised the government in Amvkhar port. A few hours later, a group of army officers arrested leading members of the military leadership in Albrektberg, forcing General Nupekan to withdraw to Albrektberg-Morthen district, while news came from Amvkhar that Admiral Asketyll
Gillmark had taken control of the islander province, cutting communication with Albrektberg, the residance of the royal family at the time. The next morning, Nupekam would be assassinated by two young military officers, although it was announced later that they had no relation with the coup plotters, and their murderers ending facing a military trial.

Two days later, King Khrym I announced his abdication, and he granted General Stian Mjosberg, Chief of the General Staff, full powers to lead a Provisional Government. Mjosberg -although officially was not involved in the conspiration against Nupekam's government- promised national election. He forced National Army forces to retreat from Albrektberg province -as the rebel forces were also to approach a few dozens of kms. to Albrektberg, Juglander capital city, for first time since the beginning of the conflict. Mjosberg, as President of the Provisional Government, agreed a ceasefire on the central front with the National Army, and started negotiations, with failed to give any result. However, he lost confidance of the military leadership, and he was forced to resign two months later, being replaced by military officer, Eadwald Engelsaas.

Eadwald Engelsaas agreed a second ceasefire with the National Army, this time a nationwide one, and political negotiations were started. Local elections were called -only in the territory controlled by Engelsaas government-, and on late October, nationwide elections were held after elections to a Constituent Assembly were held, the first nationwide election in Jugland since 2012. Negotiations continued, meanwhile the Constituent Assembly passed a proposal to a new constitution, which was finally passed in national referendum on December, leading to the establishment of the Federal Union of Jugland.

While a hopeful future opened for Jugland, the long conflict left a devastated economy, caused from 279,600 to 397,000 casualties, six million of internally displaced people and another one-two million of refugees abroad. However, the damage was not the same nationwide, as the most affected areas were the eastern region (now renamed as Austland) and the northeastern and southern regions, while the west provinces barely experienced military conflict since 2015, with Emrta archipelago only suffering 279 casualties for the whole 2014-2020 period.




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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #16 on: June 23, 2021, 02:11:13 PM »

Culture: Sports in Jugland



Various sporting events and disciplines are popular in Jugland. These include soccer, cycling, tennis, basketball, netsball, Juglander baseball and, to a lesser degree, handball, futsal, netball, lacrosse, hockey, and badminton. The popularity of those sports may vary depending on gender, age, and regional and urban-rural differences.

Soccer is the most popular sport in terms of active membership. It is, along basketball, nestball and Juglander baseball, one of the most practiced sports in the school system.

Jugland has never hosted Mundus Games, although it has been traditionally participated in most of them with rather modest results. However, the participation of Jugland in world events such as Summer and Winter Games decreased as consequence of the armed conflict in the country from 2013 to 2020, which also had an impact in the quality, development, and participation in sport events. Since the end of the conflict, interest in sports events, particularly in team sports, has increased considerably and many professional sports leagues were relaunched or reformed.

Soccer, basketball, netsball, Juglander baseball, handball, and futsal all have competitive professional leagues. Rugby is not a popular sport in Jugland, although it has experienced a surge in interest as consequence of Jugland participation for first time in the Rugby World Cup in 2021.



Team sports

The soccer professional system was reformed in 2020. The oldest football tournament is the Juglander Cup, consisting in a knockout tournament of currently 32 teams, which is usually held from February to July. The Elite Football League, the men's professional soccer league, was established in late 2020, consisting in 18 clubs. It started on December 2020.

The First Division, women's soccer top division, has twelve teams since 2021. The Women's Superleague is played between the twelve clubs of the First Division and the top four clubs from the Second Division. The current champion of the Women's Superleague is Albrektberg FD.

The National Basketball League, also known BLJD, is played by 18 clubs, and which winner is decided through a playoff system. The Basketball SuperCup is played in half-season by the top eight teams in the National Baskelball League. The current champion of the Basketball SuperCup is Nordheim who defeated Anlebaek in the final match held on May 2021.

The Women's Basketball League (KLB) is played by 12 clubs, with the same format than men's basketball. The Basketball Federal Cup, or KLB Cup, is played in half season by the top four clubs in the regular season. The current champion is Gjengfasthet Albrektberg.

The professional men's league in handball and futsal consist currently in 10 clubs, with the women's top league of those sports currently consisting in 8 clubs.

Both men's and women's professional in Juglander baseball consist in 12 clubs. Unlike other team sports in Jugland, Juglander baseball has a mostly rural following, with only a few clubs in the main cities. There is only one professional league in nestball, being a mixed sport, with currently 14 clubs as the league was relaunched in May 2021.



Other sport events

Before 2014, there were several tennis tournament, both national and continental, in Jugland. The oldest tennis tournament in Jugland is the Juglander Open, a national tourmanent held annually in which participate the men's and women's tennis players from Jugland.

On June 2021, it was held from first time the Kvinne Cup, an international tennis tournament, which was won by Tytorian Michelle Kingman.

There are several cycling events, including the Juglander National Championships, in which are decided the annual national champions in men's and women's cycling. The winners of the race will wear in their maillot the colours of the Juglander flag in any other cycling events they participate for the rest of the season.

The most important cycling race is the Tour of Jugland which was held uninterruptedly from 1945 to 2012. The riders with most wins, four, are Heimarr Henriksen (1973, 1974, 1977, and 1978) and Gottwyn Vinter (1982, 1985, 1986, 1987).

In women's cycling, the Juglander Ladies Tour, usually held in Emrta, was held from 1991 to 2013. Thora Bjerknes had the race record with three wins in 2009, 2011, and 2013.

There are a large number of cycling national, continental, and international one-day races. Between them, the most important ones are the Midtenstadt Grand Prix (in men's cycling) and the Albrektberg-Mjodde-Albrektberg Classic (in women's cycling).






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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #17 on: June 29, 2021, 12:57:50 PM »

Culture: Demographics and Languages



Languages of Jugland

Csletian language, also known as Csleta language, is the only official language in the Federal Union of Jugland. It is the native language for most of Juglander citizens, and the only national recognized as such in the Constitution of the Federal Union of Jugland.

It is believe that Csletian is not a native language from Coft Aranye, with the first texts in proto-Csletian dated around century 8th in southwestern Jugland.




Kielic language is considered the oldest language in Jugland, which earliest sources dated in the second century. It is considered a revived language, however, having become extinct in the early 18th century. A limited revival was attempted in the late 19th century and early 20th century, particularly in the eastern regions of Jugland. Before becoming extinct, the language was mostly spoken in eastern, and southeastern Jugland, particularly in rural areas.

Jugland's federal government recognizes Kielic language as a minority language, although federal and state administrations are not required to use and known the language. More recently, the Austland state government recognized Kielic language as an official language in the state (although with a legal status behind Csletian language), and school courses on Kielic language will be available in all schools and high schols of that state since 2021-2022. The Vannesdal state government has also recently funded several cultural programs aimed to promote the language. These policies, although limited to the states and Vannesdal and Austland, are resulting in a low but growing number of second language speakers, as well as very small number of families now raise children speaking the language, aiming to increase the number of first language speakers of revived Kielic language.



Juglander diaspora

It is estimated that there are from 1 to 4 million people of Juglander heritage, either Juglander citizens or descendants of Juglander immigrants, living abroad. Their connection with the motherland may vary considerably. Most of them live in Lazhkovia and other western Coft Aranye, although there are considerable Juglander communities in Alba Karinya and Albion as well.

The first wave of Juglander immigration happened in late 19th century, increasing considerably in the early 20th century, as consequence of the political turmoil during the years of the Republic of Jugland, and the restoration of the monarchy in 1906. Juglander immigration considerably started to decline after the 1930s.

However, the largest wave of Juglander immigration happened in the 21th century, during the Juglander civil war (2014-2020), particularly from 2015 to 2019. Some of those who moved from Jugland returned after 2021, but others have stayed in their new countries of residence, depening their circumstances.





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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #18 on: June 30, 2021, 02:04:02 PM »
Economy of Jugland



The economy of Jugland is an emerging free market economy, recovering from an armed conflict in the country from 2014 to 2020. Before the war, Jugland's GDP per capita was around $29,704, falling to $14,978 in 2018. Currently, the GDP per capita is $15,101. In late 2020, the economy of Jugland grew for first time in eight years. Since them, the economy has started to grow rapidly again, although the country is still affected by such problems as loss of workforce, increasing but still low foreign investment, lack of credit, and more recently, an environmental disaster in eastern Austland which particularly has affected the agriculture sector in that state.

The government of Jugland, after the establishment of the Federal Union of Jugland and the consolidation of the peace process, is optimistic about the future of the economy of the country, as Jugland has rich farmlands, particularly in the southern and southeastern regions, a well-developed industrial base in the western states, highly trained labour, and a tradition of cooperation between education system and local companies. However, increasing regional inequality and high unemployment (particularly in northern and eastern Jugland) remain the most important challenges the economy will face in the next decade.
 
Jugland is relatively rich in natural resources, particularly in mineral deposits. Although the country lack oil and natural gas reserves, it has other important energy sources, such as coal, hydroelectricity and, more recently, nuclear energy.

The main industries and economic sectors are agriculture (particularly wheat, barley, oatmeal, rye, potatoes, vegetables, beef, and dairy products), food processing, coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals (iron ore, manganese, salt, sulfur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, nickel, mercury, clay, others), machinery and trasnport equipment, chemicals, synthetic fibers, fertilizer, textiles, and timber.

For a list of some of the main Jugland's companies, you can go to Albrektberg Stock Exchange.


Trade

Jugland's largest trade partners include Lakhzovia, East Moreland, Fleur, Achkaerin, and Aosta.







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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #19 on: July 01, 2021, 09:02:05 AM »

Culture: Entertainment



Juglander popular culture includes many forms of entertainment from music, dance, cinema, arts, and literature.

Strand Media Entertainment is the largest media and entertainment company in Jugland. Established in 1971, it mostly produces movies, television shows, as well as managing several theatres in Jugland.

Since its creation, Strand Media Entertainment has received 27 Leobwyn Awards (the most important awards for artistical and technical merit in Jugland's film industry, organized by the Juglander Cinematographic Academy), including 40 nomination. In 2021, Strand Media Entertainment received their first award in the international Ostlake Movie Award, in the category for Best International Short Film for "Good Business", as well as other two nominations in other categories.

Strand Media Entertainment established in 2010 the Strand Foundation, which gives grants to actors and theatre companies, as well as organizing the Adlercreutz Awards, the most important awards for performing arts. Since 2015, the Adlercreutz Awards are held in Amvkhar, Emrta.






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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #20 on: July 03, 2021, 09:36:52 PM »

Media in Jugland




Television - Radio - Newspapers

NameFrequencyCategoryCirculationDescription/NotesLanguageOwner
NameFrequencyCategoryCirculationDescription/NotesLanguageOwner
Juglander Review   
-
Online only since 2015   
-
Juglander Review was established in Amvkhar in 1899. It was relaunched as an international newspaper in 1979   Csletian / English   Frihet Publishing House Ltd.   

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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #21 on: July 04, 2021, 02:04:02 PM »

Constitution of the Federal Union of Jugland



Spoiler: Chapter 1: The Federal Union • show
Article 1  – The Federal Union of Jugland is a sovereign federal republic.

Article 2 – The powers of the Federal Union of Jugland are vested in the people, who are represented by the Federal Council. Democracy and rule of law are the unnegotiable principles in which the Federal Union of Jugland is established.

Article 3 – The legislative powers are exercised by the Federal Council, formed by the National Assembly and the Senate. The executive powers are execised by the National Council. The judicial powers are exercised by independent courts, with the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Council  as the highest stances.

Article 4 – The territory of the Federal Union of Jugland is indivisible. The national borders can not be altered without the consent of the Federal Council.

Article 5 – All children of at least one parent with Juglander citizen has the right to be to Juglander citizenship.

A child acquires Juglander citizenship at birth if born in Jugland to at least one parent who (a) is a Juglander citizen; or (b) was also born in Jugland (even if the parent is not themself a Juglander citizen).


Spoiler: Chapter 2: Fundamental rights • show
Article 6 – Everyone is equal before the law. No discrimination on the grounds of gender, age, ethnicity, language, religion, sexual orientation, opinion, disability or other reasons should be allowed. Gender equality should be promoted by the state institutions in both social and working life, especially of pay and other terms of employment.

Article 7 – The rights to life, personal liberty, and integrity should be assured. Both death penalty and all forms of torture, including any violation of human dignity, are illegal.

No one shall be deprived of liberty arbitrarily or without reason prescribed by a law. The deprivation of liberty may be submitted for review by a court of law. The penalty imposed for an offense shall not be more severa than that provided by the law at the time of its commission.

Article 8 – Citizens and foreigners legally residing in Jugland have the right to freely move within the country and to choose their place of residence. Everyone has the right to leave the country.

Juglander citizens shall not be prevented from entering the Federal Union of Jugland or deported or extradited or transferred to another country against their will. For the purpose of legal proceedings, however, a Juglander citizen can be extradited or transferred to a country in which his or her human rights and legal protection are guaranteed.

A foreigner shall not be deported, extradited or returned to another country, if in consequence he or she is in danger of death sentence, torture, any other treatment violating human dignity, or any crime that does not exist in the Federal Union of Jugland.

Article 9 – The right to a private life and honour are guaranteed. The secrecy of correspondence, telephone and other confidential communication is inviolable without judiciary authorization.

Article 10 – Freedom of religion and conscience are guaranteed. Everyone has the right to profess and practice a religion, the right to express one’s convictions and the right to be a member of or decline to be a member of a religious community. No one is under the obligation, against his or her conscience, to participate in the practice of a religion.

Article 11 – Everyone has the freedom of expression, to disseminate and receive information, opinions and other communications without prior prevention by anyone. Documents and recordings in the possession of the authorities are public, unless their publication has for compelling reasons been specifically restricted by the law. Everyone has the right of access to public documents and recordings.

Provisions on restrictions relating the protection of children may be laid down by the law.

Article 12 – Freedom of assembly and freedom of association are guaranteed.

The freedom to form trade unions and to organize in order to look after other interesters is guaranteed.

Article 13 – Every citizen who has reached eighteen years of age has the right to vote in local, state, and national elections, as well as referendums that may be organized.

Every citizen, having attained eighteen years of age, has the right to vote in any official election in the Federal Union of Jugland.

The public authorities shall promote the opportunities for the individual to participate in social and political life adn to influence the decisions that concern him or her.

Article 14 – The property of everyone is protected. Provisions on the expropriation of property, for public needs, are laid down by a federal law.

Article 15 – Everyone has the right to basic education free of charge. The freedom of science, the arts and higher education is guaranteed.

Article 16 – The national and official language of the Federal Union of Jugland is the Csletian language. Other regional languages may be recognized by the state authorities. Minorities have the right to maintain and develop their own language and culture. The rights of persons using sign language and of persons in need of interpretation and translation shall be guaranteed by the state.

Article 17 – Everyone has the right to work and the freedom to engage in commercial activity. The public authorities shall take responsibility for the protection of the labour force.

The public authorities shall promote employment and work towards guaranteeing for everyone the right to work. No one shall be dismissed from employment without a lawful reason.

Article 18 – Those who cannot obtain the means necessary for a life of dignity have the right to receive indispensable subsistence and care. Everyone shall be guaranteed the right to basic subsistence in the event of unemployment, illness, and disability and during old age as well as at the birth of a child or the loss of a provider.

The public authorities shall guarantee for everyone, adequate social, health, and medical services and promote the health of the population. Moreover, the public authorities shall support families and others responsible for providing for children so that they have the ability to ensure the wellbeing and personal development of the children.

The public authorities shall promote the right of everyone to housing and the opportunity to arrange their own housing.

Article 19 – Nature and its biodiversity, the environment, and the national heritage are the resposibility of everyone. The public authorities shall endeavour to gurantee for everyone the right to a healthy environment and for everyone the possibility to influence the decisions that concern their own living environment.

Article 20 – Everyone has the right to have his o her case dealt with appropiately and without undue delay by a legally competent court of law or other authority, as well as to have a decision pertaining to his or her rights or obligations reviewed by a court of law or other independent organ for the administration of justice.

Provisions concerning the publicity of proceedings, the right to be heard, the right to receive a reasoned decision and the right of appeal, as well as the other guarantees of a fair trial and good governance shall be laid down by the law.

Article 21 – The public authorities shall guarantee the observance of basic rights and liberties and human rights.

Article 22 -Provisional exceptions to basic rights and liberties that are deemed necessary of an armed attack against Jugland or in the event of other situations of emergy, posing a serious threat to the nation, may be provided by legislation or a National Council decree. The grounds for provisional exceptions shall be laid down by a law, however, federal government decrees shall without delay be submitted to the National Assembly for consideration. The National Assembly may decide on the validity of the decrees.


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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #22 on: July 04, 2021, 02:46:37 PM »

Federal Union of Jugland - Legislative activity



Note: This list is not exhaustive, only including that legislation that has been actively mentioned in IC threads. Both the National Assembly and the Senate may have passed other legislation that has not been mentioned or listed here.



Parliamentary activity and/or legislation passed by the Federal Council. All previous laws are still valid unless they have been repealed by the parliament or declared unconstitutional by the Constitutional Council.

  • December 31, 2020 The Federal Union of Jugland is established.
  • January 21, 2021 Bernhardt Krohg (FDP) is appointed Speaker of the National Assembly.
  • January 27, 2021 Marriage Act, which establishes civil marriages without the need ofa certificate from religious authorities, reform and reduce the terms and time to adquire a divorce, and increases the rights of civil partnership including the right to adoption.
  • February 3, 2021 Non-binding Resolution calling the National Council to adopt legal and constitutional measures to keep the territorial integrity of the Federal Union.
  • February 15, 2021 Election of new National Council.
  • February 22, 2021 National Assembly approves joining the Mundus Convention of Universal Rights.
  • March 12, 2021 National Assembly passes Social Equality Act, abolishing nobility titles.
  • March 20, 2021 National Assembly passes resolution establishing the Nyaera Calendar as the official calendar of the Federal Union of Jugland.
  • Vinduar 14 National Assembly passes constitutional proposals for state constitution in the states of Vestmark and Vannesdal.
  • Vinduar 16 National Assembly passes constitutional proposal for state constitution in the state of Midstemdal.
  • Vinduar 25 National Assembly passes the Federal Healthcare Act, establishing a federal national healthcare system.
  • Vinduar 26 National Assembly passes constitutional proposals for state constitution in the states of Austland and Nordansk.
  • Spiruar 11 National Assembly passes constitutional proposal for state constitution in the state of Emrta.
  • Spiruar 20 National Assembly passes legislation establishing dual citizenship for Juglander citizens who were born abroad after January 2010.
  • Friktuar 25 Senate ratifies trade agreement with the Kingdom of East Moreland.
  • Solember 4 National Assembly passes National Defense Reform Act, which abolishes compulsory military service and military conscription.
  • Varmember 2-8 National Assembly and Senates elect last appointments to the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Council.