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Offline paralipomena

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Factbook of Jugland
« on: November 01, 2019, 11:24:47 AM »
Factbook of Jugland


Jugland is a nation-state in Cotf Aranye. The Kingdom of Jugland was established in the medieval ages, and it was ruled through most of his history by the House of Namnedam, established by King Merem the Brave. Except during the short-lived First Republic period (1901-1906), the monarchy endured in Jugland from ancient times to the 21th century. However, the kingdom found itself involved into a political crisis which led to the Six-Year civil War, which eventually led to the abdication of King Khrym I and the establishment of the Federal Union of Jugland after a complicated peace agreement.

The people of Jugland are largely homogeneous, with most coming from the original tribes that made up the Kingdom of Jugland centuries ago, except in the eastern and northern areas which were occupied by several rival countries, including Jugland, along several colonial settlements in coastal areas, through history. The name 'Jugland' derives from an old word in ancient Csleta language meaning "southern lands". The Csleta language (also known as Csletian) is the official language in the country, spoken by most of their inhabitants.

Government Type: Federal Republic
Head of State & Head of Government: National Council (collective head of state/government)
Population: 59,051,000
Capital City:  Midstenstadt
Demonym: Juglander
Currency: Sedr(es)
GDP per Capita: $15,101
Ethnicity: Juglander 94%; Other Coft Aranye ethnicities 5%; Others 1%
Languages: Csleta / Csletian (official language)
Religions: Order of Werden (majority religion), others

« Last Edit: June 06, 2021, 07:51:52 PM by paralipomena »

Offline paralipomena

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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #1 on: November 01, 2019, 11:39:45 AM »

The Order of Werden

Werdenism, also known as Werden Cult, is the dominant religion in Jugland. It was the state religion in Jugland until recently, and foreign religions were not allowed until the 18th century. Werdenism has a polytheist framework, although as a religion it focuses more on rituals and practical aspects rather than in doctrine or theology. Unlike other religions, Werdenism lacks a holy book, although there are several literature books or chronicles that have official status.

The most important sources for Werdenist rituals and traditions are:
  • Literature produced by the Werden temples and clergy.
  • Historical chronicles accepted as authentic by Werden authorities
  • Folklore such as folk tales, folk songs, and special traditions and rituals linked to special celebrations or dates

In Werdenism, the world is divided into three spheres: the first is the Upper World, the home of the gods; the second is the Middle World, the world we know, and finally the Underworld. Originally, only the Upper World existed, although it is uncertain how and when it was created. According to Werden mythology, the Upper World is inhabited by a number of gods, as old as time and who emerged from the void as primary divine beings. One of them, Eno, created the Tree of Life, from which the Middle World emerged -as well all plants and animals were created-, while Atter created the Tree of Wisdom, from which emerged the Underworld. From the fruits of the Tree of Wisdom were born some supernatural and immortal beings called the Hjardya (often mistranslated as "angels" ,"demons", or "semi-gods"). The Hjardya, unlike the gods, who can be male or female, are believed to have no gender and be asexual. They originally served as messengers between the Upper and Middle worlds. However, one day Atter convinced the Hjardya to support him to become the sole and only supreme god of the Upper World, in exchange, they could do as they please and stop serving them. Eno, with the assistance of the other gods and Modigin- a mythical hero who ate a golden fruit from the Tree of Life-, defeated Atter, who was imprisoned inside the Tree of Wisdom. The rest of the Hjardya -with the exception of Vennarr, who remained loyal to Eno- were sent to the Underworld. Since them, they are eternally in charge of protecting the Tree of Wisdom, and they are only allowed to leave the Underworld if Eno -who became supreme king of the Upper World since then-, allows them to do so. Since them, Vennarr remained as the messenger of the gods and the Supreme Guardian of the Middle World.

According to the legend, Vennarr is assisted as Guardian of the Middle World by four Guardians, who were worn from golden fruits who fell from the Tree of Life, and are named after the cardinal points. They are assisted by four Hjardya who were allowed to leave the Underworld and establish in the Middle World. Those Hjardya, however, unlike the four Guardians, are not allowed to participate in human affairs, they rather serve as advisors (in ancient Werden literature, however, they relation between the Guardians and their assistant was often presented as some kind of marriage). In one ancient myth, the Grönn Valley -in northern Jugland- was considered to be the center of the universe, therefore the conflicts between the four Guardians were often explained as the case of serious crisis, such as bad harvests, famine, or war.

The nomenclature of the Werden Cult officially refers to the members of the clergy and the administrative organization of the temples and other religious institutions as the "Holy Order of the Werden Wisdom" as a whole, commonly simply called as "The Order". In Werden religion, every temple is destined to the worship of a deity, lacking a hierarchy of temples, although traditionally those where Enno was worshiped were believed to have a higher status. The temples are administered by a magistrate with the title of "Klok" (wise man or scholar) who is in charge of the daily affairs, and who had an education as religious scholars (in case the temple is too large or important, a council of magistrates may lead it instead). However, the ritual ceremonies are performed by female clergy,  who traditionally lived in the temple or a nearby sanctuary. The priestesses have vows of celibacy and poverty and in ancient times they were not allowed to leave the temple. The priestesses are often assisted by underage assistants.

The magistrates were rather powerful in the past, as they served as religious scholars and judges until religious courts were abolished in the 17th century. In ancient times, the religious magistrates were eunuchs. However, this was abolished in the 12th century. Since them, the magistrates must be married. Nowadays, the magistrates have a minor role compared to priestesses. In 1971, women were accepted as magistrates for first time.

Until recently, the King of Jugland was the official and ceremonial head of the Werden Cult. The senior member of the clergy and leader of the Order is the Supreme Priestess, who traditionally resided in the Enno Lyscei Shrine in northwestern Jugland. She is elected by a council of magistrates and priestesses, and serves for life or until retirement. Besides the Supreme Priestess, the Order mostly lacks an established hierarchy, and every temple is relatively autonomous.

« Last Edit: June 01, 2021, 09:19:33 PM by paralipomena »

Offline paralipomena

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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #2 on: November 03, 2019, 02:54:12 PM »
Politics of Jugland

Government of Jugland

The Federal Union of Jugland is a federal republic established after the Mannstadt Peace Agreement, which ended the Jugland civil war (2014-2020).

The National Council holds the executive power and is composed of seven members elected by the Federal Council. According to the constitution, the National Council serves as a collective head of state. However, one of the Secretaries -as the members of the National Council are officially called- serves as President of the National Council, who carries the representative functions of the head of state in official visits and ceremonial events. Despite this, the President of the National Council has no power above and beyond the other six Secretaries. The President of the National Council, however, is empowered to act on behalf of the whole National Council in urgent situations, when a meeting of the National Council is not possible.

The federal legislative power is vested in the two chambers of the Federal Council, the National Assembly and the Senate. The National Assembly serves as the lower house of the parliament, their members being elected by proportional representation, in which each state forms an electoral district. On the other hand, the Senate is formed by representatives of the states.

The judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Court, which along the Constitutional Council is the highest court in Jugland.

Regional and municipal politics vary in the different states, which have different systems.

Administrative divisions

The Federal Union of Jugland is formed by six states and the federal capital city of Midtenstadt.

The six states are Nordansk, Austland, Vestmark, Vannesdal, Midstemsdal, and Emrta. Every state has its own state assembly and state constitution, in the framework established by the 2021 federal constitution of the Federal Union of Jugland. The five states have wide competences in education, healthcare, taxation, civil law, between others, and limited competences on law enforcement, while the federal government had mostly competences on defense, foreign policy, as well as federal law enforcement and federal taxation.

The particular system of government of each state may be differ consisderably, being the most striking one the fact that the State of Emrta, has a monarchist form of government, being officially named "Grand-Duchy of Emrta".

States of JuglandCapital city     Population (as early 2021)
Grand-Duchy of EmrtaAmvkhar2,360,000
Midtenstadt (federal capital city)      Midtendstadt590,972

All five states hold elections the same day, although they may hold snap elections under special circumstances. However, the latter does not imply the beginning of a new parliamentary term, as there will be held state elections the day the other member states. The next state election will be held on May 2025, in which a nationwide vote for electing representatives for each state assembly will be held, with the exception of the federal city of Midetenstadt, which assembly is elected the day that local elections are held.

Largest cities of the Federal Union of Jugland
*Name          State             Population     

Foreign relations

The Federal Union of Jugland has embassies and consulates in more than 60 countries.

  • Republic of Fleur - The Federal Union of Jugland and the Republic of Fleur have signed a Memorandum of Cooperation and Friendship in 2021, establishing agreements of cooperation in the fields of education, energy, and security.
  • East Moreland - The Federal Union of Jugland and East Moreland have signed a commercial and trade agreement in 2021.

The Federal Union of Jugland has also recently established consulates in Portworth, Chamwick and Silverhills (East Moreland).

« Last Edit: June 01, 2021, 11:34:13 AM by paralipomena »

Offline paralipomena

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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #3 on: November 03, 2019, 04:01:40 PM »
Armed Forces of Jugland

Spoiler: Conflict in Jugland (2014-2019) • show
[td]Name[/td][td]Royal Armed Forces[/td][td]National Army[/td][td]United League[/td][td]Others[/td]
[td]Ideology[/td][td]Armed Forces of the Kingdom of Jugland[/td][td]Anti-government[/td][td]Pro-government[/td][td]Mostly anti-government[/td]
[td]Description[/td][td]The Royal Armed Forces are the armed forces of the Kingdom of Jugland. The monarch, as head of state of the kingdom, is the commander-in-chief[/td][td]The National Army is the armed-wing of the National Coaliton, the main anti-government political movement in Jugland[/td][td]The so-called United League -officially the "United League of Independent Counties" is a group of militias, associated to the Independent Civic Party. They operate mostly in rural areas, specially in western and central Jugland[/td][td]Other armed groups[/td]
[td]Established[/td][td](current form) in 1911[/td][td]late 2013[/td][td]2015[/td][td]2012-2019[/td]
[td]Leadership[/td][td]King Khrym I[/td][td]Russ Khetam
Pebha Csevrampam
Raktisas Nemasatam
[/td][td]Kumyd Meremam[/td][td]Unknown[/td]
[td]Military age[/td][td]18 years old[/td][td]18 years old[/td][td]18 years old[/td][td]Unknown[/td]
[td]Total active personnel[/td][td]87,832[/td][td]54,890[/td][td]~5,000[/td][td]~2,000-3,000[/td]
[td]Ground forces[/td][td]43,120 military
560 tanks
1,742 IFV/APC[/td][td]47,340 military
429 tanks
1,498 IFV/APC [/td][td]~4,800 military
~140 IFV/APC[/td]
[td]Air Force[/td][td]30,600 military
248 aircraft
150 helicopters[/td][td]5,550 military
~80 aircraft
~110 helicopters[/td][td]~100 military
10 helicopters[/td]
[td]Navy[/td][td]14,112 military
3 submarines, 2 frigates, 1 corvette
7 auxiliary ships and 3 trainning vessels
35 naval aircraft[/td][td]~2,000 military
1 auxiliary ship and 1 training vessel
9 naval aircraft[/td][td]none[/td]
« Last Edit: September 16, 2020, 11:26:56 AM by paralipomena »

Offline paralipomena

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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #4 on: May 23, 2021, 06:33:17 PM »
Politics of Jugland (2): Political parties

Jugland has a multi-party system with numerous political parties, in which noe one party can easily expect to gain a majority. Parties may cooperate to form coalition. Currently, there is federal government coalition consisted of the five main political parties. The Juglander constitution regulates the election of the members of the federal parliament, the Federal Council, divided in the National Assembly and the Senate. The constitution estipulates that elections are to be universal, direct, free, equal, and secret.

Juglander voters elect their members of the National Assembly through a mixed voting system. They have a vote for a direct candidate, who ought to receive a plurality in their electoral district. A second vote is used to elect a party list in each state. The National Assembly comprises seats representing each electoral district, with the remainder of seats being allocated to maintain proportionality based on the second vote. It is common that direct candidates are also placed on the electoral lists at higher rankings as a fall-back inf they do not win their districts. Currently, there are 150 members of the National Assembly elected directly through their electoral districts, while the other 173 members of the National Assembly are elected through the proportional vote.

Current composition of the National Assembly (2021):
  • National Democratic Party (107 seats)
  • Federal Democratic Party (101 seats)
  • Reform Movement (48 seats)
  • Social Initiative (38 seats)
  • Liberal Party (16 seats)
  • Autonomous Movement for Emrta (8 seats)
  • Freedom Party (7 seats)
  • Workers Democratic Party (2 seats)
  • Independents (6 seats)

List of main political parties in Jugland
NameFoundedPositionIdeologyLeaderDescriptionSeats in the National Assembly (2021)Seats in the Senate*
National Democratic Party2020Center-leftSocial democracy, nationalismGerlach FlogstadThe NDP was formed as a merged of the National People's Alliance, which included most of the promiment members of the rebel National Army107/33317/55
Federal Democratic Party2020Centre to centre-leftSocial liberalism, federalismRaymond Furuholmen / Grimwaldyna NygaardThe FDP was established in 2020 as the merger of several centrist parties101/33319/55
Reform Movement2020Centre-rightLiberal conservatism, statismBurkhardt KvalheimThe Reform Movement was established mostly by ministers and supporters of Engelsaas administration in the Provisional Government (2020-2021)48/33310/55
Social Initiative2020Right-wingConservatism, agrarianismSigeweard FaeravaagSocial Initiative is a coalition of several right-leaning and conservative political parties38/3330/55
Liberal Party1848Centre to centre-rightLiberalismHraban NedlandThe Liberal Party, established in 1848, is the oldest political party16/3333/55
Freedom Party2019Right-wingLibertarianism, Populism, national conservatismFaramund StubberudThe Freedom Party was founded by late Ragnbjorg Herbjornsrud as a Libertarian and pro-business political party, although it has become a more right-leaning and nationalist political party in recent months9/3330/55
Autonomous Movement for Emrta2020CentreLiberalism, regionalist, separatismFredenand OstremAutonomous Movement for Emrta is a political party based in the Grand-Duchy of Emrta, aimed toward more sovreignty and self-determination for the region8/3336/55
Workers Democratic Party2020Left-wingSocial democracy, socialism, anti-capitalismAlbrekt ThortsvedtThe Workers Democratic Party was established in 2020 as the merger of several left-wing political parties2/3330/55
Green Party2021Centre-leftGreen politicsEmmeline KolsethThe Green Party is a left-leaning green party0/3330/55
* The Senate is a legislative body that represents the six federated states of the Federal Union of Jugland at the federal level. Although the members of the Senate may be members of a political party, they rather vote as a block as representatives of their own state government (which may be often formed by a coalition of several political parties) than as the political parties that they are members.

Other political parties:
  • Conservative Party - established in 1811, it was the oldest political party in Jugland until 2018, when the party was dissolved. It was the largest political party during many decades, with a large number of Prime Ministers. However, the party official position following the 2014 protests, in which they supported a tough line in support of the government, consolidated the decline of the Conservative Party, which had already started in the early 21th century.
  • Democratic Party - not confused with the Democratic Union (2016-2020), the Democratic Party was a left-leaning political party established in 1854 by former members of the Liberal Party. The Democratic Party played an important role during the Republic of Jugland (1901-1906) but it was dissolved in 1929.
  • Socialist Party - established in 1890, the Socialist Party was a left-wing and socialist political party. The Socialist Party was dissolved in 1949.
  • Revolutionary Party - The Revolutionary Party was a left-wing and nationalist political party, established in 1904. The Revolutionary Party was renamed as Communist Party in 1939, when the party officially adopted a Marxist-Leninist orientation. Since the late 1970s, the Communist Party failed to enter in the Juglander parliament. It disappeared in the late 1990s, when the party split in several smaller political parties and organizations
  • Labour Party - The Labour Party existed between 1902 and 1949. Although a left-wing political party, it had a both anti-communist and anti-fascist stance.
  • United Labour Party - it was established in 1949, as the merger of the Labour Party and the Socialist Party, as well as other left-leaning organizations. It joined three times the Juglander government (in 1966-1969, as minor party in a Liberal Party government; 1986-1991, and 2008-2009). Although the United Labour Party still exists nowadays, it losts most of its membership during the war, and it is considered today a rather marginal political party.
  • Patriotic Party - it existed from 1900 and 1987, a conservative and far-right political party, which played an important role from 1900 to 1940.
  • National Liberal Party - established in 2001 as a split from the Liberal Party. It played an important role in the 2000s and 2010s, but the party dissolved in 2018.
  • Moderate Party - established in 2019, founded by Johannes Skouen (current Secretary of Transport, Energy and Communications in the National Council). The Moderate Party was officially a right-leaning political party, although it was considered by many as a political party controlled by the rebel National Army, as it was created in the territory controlled by the rebel forces. The Moderate Party was part of the National People's Alliance, and it dissolved in 2020, when the Moderate Party merged with other organizations from the National People's Alliance, establishing the National Democratic Party.
  • New Emrta is a separatist political party, established in 2021. It obtained three seats in the Emrta state assembly in the 2021 state election.
  • The Party of Pensioners, Veterans, and Smallholders is a conservative political party established in 2021 by Helmwald Yivisaker-Aksnes, a former member and MP from the Social Initiative.

Offline paralipomena

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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #5 on: May 31, 2021, 07:22:04 PM »
Society: The States of Jugland

The Federal Union of Jugland is formed by six states, as well as the federal city of Midtenstadt.


Midtenstadt (officially Federal City of Midtenstadt) is the capital city of the Federal Union of Jugland. The city was established only in late 2020, over the previous settlement of Nythammel, along the territory of the provinces of Mymark and Tommeland. The current population of Midtenstadt (as in 2021) is 963,000 inhabitants. As a consequence, most of the city buildings and neighborhoods were recently built. However, the western district retains much of the original Nythammel.

Most of the federal government (including the Federal Council -the federal parliament, formed by the National Assembly and the Senate- and the National Council -the federal executive council-) is held in Midtenstadt, with the exception of the Constitutional Council, which is held in Albrektberg, former capital city of the Kingdom of Jugland. Although Midtenstadt is placed between the states of Midstemsdal and Nordansk, the federal city is independent from both, and the Midtenstadt residents do not vote in the state election, electing their representatives in the local election instead.

The Grand Council of Midtenstadt, led by a Lieutenant-Governor, elects the city representatives in the Senate. The Lieutenant-Governor of Midtenstadt is directly appointed by the National Council, following consultations with the local representatives. However, both him and the Grand Council have limited competences and powers, compared to the Town Council and the Mayor of Albrektberg, elected by popular vote.


The state of Midstemsdal is the largest state in Jugland, with more than 18 million inhabitants. The capital city of Midstemsdal is Albrektberg, which was the capital city of Jugland for several centuries until 2020, when the capital city was moved to Midtenstadt, after the establishment of the Federal Union of Jugland. Albrektberg, with a population of 2,837,000, is still the largest city in Jugland, and many companies and cultural institutions are still held in Albrektberg rather than in Midtenstadt.

The State of Midstemsdal is headed by a Governor, elected by the state assembly.

Albrektberg, capital of the state of Midstemsdal.

Other important cities in Midstemsdal are Kannenheim (391,000 inhabitants), Mannstadt (295,000 inhabitants), and Leverheim (194,000 inhabitants)


The state of Nordansk, in northwestern Jugland, is the second largest state in the Federal Union of Jugland, with a population of 13,570,000. The capital city of Nordansk is Nordheim, with a population of 871,000. Other important cities in Nordansk are Hernstadt (322,000 inhabitants), Helligstad (260,000 inhabitants), Ngeinta (212,000 inhabitants), and Gronenheim (203,000 inhabitants).

The state of Nordansk is headed by a Governor, elected by the state assembly. The current governor of Nordansk is Othmarr Storstein, from the Federal Democratic Party.

Nordheim, capital city and Nordansk and fourth largest city of the country.


The state of Austland is located in eastern Jugland, with a population of 10,030,000 inhabitants. It is the largest state (in terms of surface) and the third most populated state. Fjellstad, with a population of 372,000 inhabitants, is the capital city of the state. Other important cities are Gronbukt (230,000 inhabitants), Hamarrland (198,000 inhabitants), Sandheim (195,000 inhabitants), and Starborg (157,000 inhabitants).

Austland was the state most affected by the Juglander civil war (2014-2020), as a large part of its territory was controlled by the National Army and other rebel groups, as well as being the state where more battles took places. As consequence, Austland is the Juglander state with the lowest GDP per capita. It is also the state with the largest rural population of the six states that form the Federal Union of Jugland.

The Governor of Austland heads the state government, being elected by the state assembly. Wighardt Bergersen, from the National Democratic Party, is the current governor of Austland.

Fjellstad is the capital city of the state of Austland.


The state of Vannesdal is located in southwestern Jugland, with a population of 8,260,000. It is also the smallest state of those five state in mainland Jugland.

The capital city of Vannesdal is Sandberg, with a population of 658,000 inhabitants. Other important cities of Vannesdal are Haugefjord (186,000 inhabitants) and Gjenborg
 (167,000 inhabitants).

The Governor of Vannesdal, elected by the state assembly, heads the state government. The current Governor of Vannesdal is Bertha Gundersen, from the National Democratic Party.

Sandberg is the capital city of Vannesdal.


The state of Vestmark, located in western Jugland, has a population of 5,900,000 inhabitants. Hunnund, with a population of 574,000 inhabitants, is its capital city. Other important cities include Stromendalen (311,000 inhabitants), Mjodde (201,000 inhabitants), and Stromserenga (172,000 inhabitants).

The Governor of Vestmark is elected by the state assembly. The current state government is formed by a coalition of the Federal Democratic Party, the Reform Movement, and the Liberal Party.

Hunnund, capital city of the state of Vestmark.


The Grand-Duchy of Emrta is located south of mainland Jugland, about 70 kilometres to Vannesdal, and it has a population of 2,360,000. Emrta is therefore the smallest state in Jugland, both in terms of surface and population.

Amvkhar is the capital city of Emrta, with a population of 1,396,000, being the second largest city in the country. It is Jugland's state with the highest GDP per capita, and it is also the most urban state, as more than half of its population lives in Amvkhar metropolitan area.

It is the only state of the Federal Union of Jugland with a monarchist form of government, following the approval of the state constitution and the Basic Law of Emrta. The Grand-Duchy of Emrta is headed by Grand-Duchess Mildgyd, who was proclaimed as ceremonial head of the state in a ceremony on May 2021. The Grand-Duchess is a constitutional monarch and she has no formal executive powers. Grand Duchess Mildgy is the only daughter of late King Engelhardt III and the sister of King Khrym I, the last monarch of the Kingdom of Jugland.

The state government is headed by the Governor of Emrta, who is appointed by the state assembly. The current Governor of Emrta is Amalberaht Oppegard, from the Autonomous Movement for Emrta.

Amvkhar, capital city of the Grand-Duchy of Emrta.

« Last Edit: June 01, 2021, 11:29:53 AM by paralipomena »

Offline paralipomena

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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #6 on: June 01, 2021, 01:23:54 PM »
History: The Kingdom of Jugland

The Kingdom of Jugland was established in 1176, when under the leadership of Engelhardt Gustav Theudbald Andersdotter av Gaarderstad, the Mellomhærene armies, several western and northern kingdoms and provinces were unified in a new alliance, following a long war in the region. Engelhardt Andersdotter, a noble from what is today northwestern Jugland, would be crowned as Engelhardt I, the first King of Jugland. During the next centuries, the Kingdom of Jugland expanding its territory. In 1261, Leobwyn I, after the Battle of Vognmakenstadt, following the final defeat of the Csletian League, an alliance of several city-states and autonomous provinces, the Kingdom would consolidate as the largest state in the region.

The Kingdom of Jugland was, until 1579, an elective monarchy, although most of the kings were from the House of Andersdotter, with only a few exception. In 1579, following a brief succession crisis, Mannwald I was crowned as king, establishing the House of Welhaven-Goltzam. In 1591, the Kingdom of Jugland officially became a hereditary monarchy, with Mannwald's son being crowned as King Gerlach II. The Welhaven-Goltzam Dinasty will rule Jugland until the contemporary era.

The Kingdom of Jugland was an absolute monarchy until the 19th-century. In 1811, following a political crisis, a permanent parliament was established for first time, a Council of Ministers formed as Jugland's national government, and some limitations to the monarch's powers were established as well. Still, the King had the power to appoint and dismiss the Prime Minister, veto laws passed by either the government or the parliament, and to promulgate royal decrees without the parliament approval.

In 1849, the Charter of Amvkhar was signed, establishing the Principality of Emrta, which allowed an autonomous government in the Emrta archipelago. From 1849 to 1876, the King of Jugland ruled both the Kingdom of Jugland and the Principality of Emrta, the latter being administered by a Governor-General, who was appointed without the control of the national government. In 1876, the Principality of Emrta was renamed as the Grand-Duchy of Emrta. Since then, and until 1901, although the Grand-Duchy of Emrta was granted more autonomy, the ruler of the Grand-Duchy would be the Grand-Duke, heir of the Juglander throne as the King's elder son.

Following a military defeat in 1881, the Kingdom of Jugland faced political crisis and economic stagnation, resulting in a national crisis at the end of the 19th century. In 1901, a military rebellion led to the abdication of King Godric IV, and the proclamation of the Republic of Jugland (1901-1906). However, a coup d'etat in 1906 led by General Reinhardt Heimarr Nordraak, will result in the restoration of the monarchy four months after. King Godric's younger brother, Theudbald, would be crowned as King Theudbald III in Albrektberg.

The beginning of the reign of Theudbald III would be marked by political repression, although political and social turmoil would continue. Although the Kingdom of Jugland had no written constitution, the powers of the Council of Ministers were expanded and it was considered a de facto semi-constitutional monarchy. Still, the King retained some executive powers, such as the powers of dismissing the Prime Minister or dissolving the parliament, and some limited forms of veto powers. However, Theudbald III would rarely use those powers, and the next decades would be marked by a succession of conservative and right-leaning governments.

In 1951, some political reforms were introduced, increasing the powers of the parliament and reintroducing women's suffrage. The next decades would be relatively calm politically, and the country would experience increasing economic development. However, the election of the United Labour Party in 2008 -in the second left-wing government since 1906- would result in a constitutional crisis the next year, after four ministers from the People's Party -a left-leaning and anti-monarchist political party- joined the government. King Engelhardt III dissolved the parliament and a provisional government was appointed. Six months later, a constitutional reform would be introduced, consolidating the powers of the monarch and the national government over the parliament.

In 2014, a wave of protests were met with violence and repression by security forces. After months of protests and riots, particularly in the southern and eastern provinces, the protests would eventually lead to anti-government rebellion, and the start of the Jugland civil war (2014-2020). King Engelhardt III, would die in late 2015, being replaced by his son, Khrym who was crowned as King Khrym I on December. In 2020, following a military mutiny in Amvkhar and the assassination of the Prime Minister, King Khrym I would abdicate. A Provisional Government would be established, led by General Stian Mjosberg, who would become the de facto head of state of the Kingdom of Jugland. Mjosberg would be replaced two months later by Eadwald Engelsaas, who would reestart negotiations with the National Army, the main rebel force, and call elections to a Constituent Assembly.

Following the Mannstadt Peace Agreement, the Constituent Assembly, the first nationwide parliament since 2015, would negotiate and pass a new constitution, which would be approved in national referendum in late December 2020. A few days later, the Provisonal Government would announce the proclamation of the Federal Union of Jugland, being the Kingdom of Jugland abolished. Following the first legislative elections, the Provisional Government would be replaced by the National Council, as it was established in the Juglander constitution, and a National Unity government formed by the Federal Democratic Party, National Democratic Party, Reform Movement and Liberal Party established, with the support of the conservative Social Initiative and some independent representatives.

List of Juglander monarchs

Kingdom of Jugland (1176-1901)
  • Engelhardt I (1158)-1217), King of Jugland (1176-1217)
  • Wigburg I (1179-1243), King of Jugland (1217-1243)
  • Hildebrandt I (1225-1261), King of Jugland (1243-1261)
  • Leobwyn I (1230-1293), King of Jugland (1261-1293)
  • Othmarr I (1229-1298), King of Jugland (1293-1298)
  • Godric II (1235-1299), King of Jugland (1298-1299)
  • Waramund I (1240-1303), King of Jugland (1299-1303)
  • Amalberaht I (1278-1312), King of Jugland (1303-1312)
  • Fulberaht I (1265-1313), King of Jugland (1312-1313)
  • Berahtrand I (1265-1320), King of Jugland (1313-1320)
  • Gerlach I (1295-1341), King of Jugland (1320-1341)
  • Theubdald I (1301-1351), King of Jugland (1341-1351)
  • Waramund II (1326-1356), King of Jugland (1351-1356)
  • Godric II (1334-1366), King of Jugland (1356-1366)
  • Ragnvaldr I (1329-1385), King of Jugland (1366-1385)
  • Engelhardt II (1355-1385), King of Jugland (1385-1387)
  • Gerlach II (1339-1396), King of Jugland (1387-1396)
  • Wigburg II (1372-1397), King of Jugland (1396-1397)
  • Othmarr II (1356-1399), King of Jugland (1397-1399)
  • Godehardt I (1373-1421), King of Jugland (1399-1421)
  • Godehardt II (1399-1429), King of Jugland (1421-1429)
  • Hramnberaht I (1377-1435), King of Jugland (1429-1435)
  • Waramund III (1406-1470), King of Jugland (1435-1470)
  • Heimarr I (1439-1476), King of Jugland (1470-1476)
  • Hallbjorn I (1421-1489), King of Jugland (1476-1488)
  • Engelhardt II (1462-1490), King of Jugland (1488-1490)
  • Ragnvaldr II (1465-1491), King of Jugland (1490-1491)
  • Leutwyn I (1456-1516), King of Jugland (1491-1516)
  • Hugleikrarr I (1470-1529), King of Jugland (1516-1529)
  • Hrodgarr I (1487-1540), King of Jugland (1529-1540)
  • Leobwyn II (1503-1564), King of Jugland (1540-1564)
  • Gautberaht I (1527-1576), King of Jugland (1564-1576)
  • Leobwyn III (1552-1578), King of Jugland (1576-1578)
  • Grimwald I (1544-1579), King of Jugland (1576-1579)
  • Mannwald I (1541-1591), King of Jugland (1579-1591)
  • Gerlach II (1560-1619) King of Jugland (1591-1619)
  • Waramund IV (1578-1637), King of Jugland (1619-1637)
  • Theudbald II (1608-1657), King of Jugland (1637-1657)
  • Mannwald II (1633-1660), King of Jugland (1657-1660)
  • Frydenot I (1640-1705), King of Jugland (1660-1705)
  • Hramnberaht I (1678-1711), King of Jugland (1705-1711)
  • Godric III (1685-1740), King of Jugland (1711-1740)
  • Aldegunda I (1717-1780), Queen of Jugland (1740-1780)
  • Wulfgang I (1741-1790), King of Jugland (1780-1790)
  • Gerlach III (1747-1792), King of Jugland (1790-1792)
  • Leobwyn IV (1768-1835), King of Jugland (1792-1835)
  • Mannwald III (1793-1875), King of Jugland (1835-1875) and Prince of Emrta (1846-1875)
  • Hramnberaht II (1830-1879), King of Jugland (1875-1879) and Prince of Emrta (1875-1876)
  • Godric IV (1851-1922), Grand-Duke of Emrta (1876-1879) King of Jugland (1879-1901)

Kingdom of Jugland (1906-2020)
  • Theudbald III (1856-1925), King of Jugland (1906-1925)
  • Gerlach IV (1899-1972), King of Jugland (1925-1972)
  • King Engelhardt III (1940-2014), King of Jugland (1972-2014)
  • King Khrym I, King of Jugland (2014-2020)

List of Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of Jugland
  • Hughardt Njall Ballangrud (1770-1828), Prime Minister (1812-1820), previously Chancellor of the Treasury (1807-1812) - Clan Hoyde / Conservative Party
  • Ortwyn Evensen (1766-1822), Prime Minister (1820-1822) - Independent
  • Hughart Njall Ballangrud, Prime Minister (1822-1826) - Conservative Party
  • Othmarr Johannessen (1782-1859), Prime Minister (1826-1827) - Clan Sornad
  • Gautberaht Guttormsen (1764-1845), Prime Minister (1827-1828) - Clan Kornell
  • Hulderic Larsen av Nyttland (1779-1848), Prime Minister (1828) - Conservative Party
  • Walhafryd Knudsen-Maier (1769-1852), Prime Minister (1828-1829) - Conservative Party
  • Hermann Snorr Hakonsen (1788-1850), Prime Minister (1829-1835) - Conservative Party
  • Ekkehardt Sklett (1779-1848), Prime Minister (1835-1841) - Clan Sornad
  • Hermann Snorr Hakosen, Prime Minister (1841-1844) - Conservative Party
  • Theudbald Pettersen (1799-1878), Prime Minister (1844-1846) - Clan Kornell
  • Reinhardt Ballangrud (1811-1882), Prime Minister (1846-1855) - Conservative Party
  • Erhardt Ljokelsoy (1799-1869), Prime Minister (1855-1856) - Independent
  • Hugleikrarr Jakobsen 1784-1860), Prime Minister (1856) - Clan Sornad
  • Reinhardt Ballangrud, Prime Minister (1856-1864) - Conservative Party
  • Oswald Knudsen (1784-1865), Prime Minister (1864-1865) - Conservative Party
  • Sigeweard Alsgaard (1792-1878), Prime Minister (1865-1868) - Conservative Party
  • Glaedwyn Ronningen (1804-1881), Prime Minister (1868-1871) - Liberal Party
  • Reinhardt Ballangrud, Prime Minister (1871-1876) - Conservative Party
  • Lamprecht Braekhus (1809-1898), Prime Minister (1876-1880) - Liberal Party
  • Hughardt Grimseth (1821-1894), Prime Minister (1880-1881) - Independent
  • Baldwyn Solberg-Hakomsen (1830-1903), Prime Minister (1881-1884) - Conservative Party
  • Lamprecht Braekhus, Prime Minister (1884-1886) - Liberal Party
  • Balwyn Solberg-Hakomsen, Prime Minister (1886-1892) - Conservative Party
  • Ragnbjorg Hagen (1847-1929), Prime Minister (1892-1895) - Conservative Party
  • Godehardt Kraggerud (1848-1930), Prime Minister (1895-1896) - Liberal Party
  • Walhafryd Agdestein (1836-1908), Prime Minister (1896-1898) - Conservative Party
  • Fredenand Kjelling (1852-1928), Prime Minister (1898) - Independent
  • Mannwald Hammerseng (1858-1923), Prime Minister (1898-1899) - Conservative Party
  • Fredenand Kjelling, Prime Minister (1899-1901) - Independent
  • Walhafryd Agdestein, Prime Minister (1901) - Conservative Party
  • ...
  • Colmund Edin-Barthold (1852-1919), Prime Minister (1906-1908) - Independent
  • Ragnvaldr Tufte (1863-1845), Prime Minister (1908-1916) - Conservative Party
  • Reinhardt Heimarr Nordraak (1859-1941) - Prime Minister (1916-1918) - Patriotic League
  • Gautberaht Leonhardsen (1858-1923) - Prime Minister (1918-1923) - Conservative Party
  • Leobwyn Ekeberg (1867-1947) - Prime Minister (1923-1926) - Conservative Party
  • Wydukind Hansen (1866-1937) - Prime Minister (1926-1927) - Patriotic League
  • Leobwyn Ekeberg, Prime Minister (1927-1929) - Conservative Party
  • Grimwald Rustadstuen (1870-1941) - Prime Minister (1929-1935) - Liberal Party
  • Leobwyn Ekeberg, Prime Minister (1935-1937) - Conservative Party
  • Othmarr Sperrevik (1869-1940) - Prime Minister (1937-1940) - Conservative Party
  • Herewardt Bjornstad (1874-1965) - Prime Minister (1940-1945) - Conservative Party
  • Osgard Hunstad-Nordby (1883-1967) - Prime Minister (1945-1951) - Liberal Party
  • Herewardt Bjornstad, Prime Minister (1951-1955) - Conservative Party
  • Raymond Aamodt-Vikingstad (1897-1977), Prime Minister (1955-1957) - Conservative Party
  • Horsarr Gjerdalen (1894-1986), Prime Minister (1957-1964) - Conservative Party
  • Gebhardt Mathisen (1903-1995), Prime Minister (1964-1966) - Conservative Party
  • Lamprecht Lovland (1916-1995), Prime Minister (1966-1969) - Liberal Party
  • Ulrich Bredesen (1916-2005), Prime Minister (1969-1973) - Conservative Party
  • Lamprecht Lovland, Prime Minister (1973-1976) - Liberal Party
  • Waldymar Daehlen (1912-2005), Prime Minister (1976-1979) - Liberal Party
  • Giselmund Thaegger (1925-2013), Prime Minister (1979-1986) - Conservative Party
  • Gautberaht Northug (1932-2019), Prime Minister (1986-1991) - United Labour Party
  • Theudbald Bredesen (1943), Prime Minister (1991-1997) - Conservative Party
  • Hramnberaht Ostensen (1953), Prime Minister (1997-2000) - Liberal Party
  • Osgard Kringlebotn (1937-2018), Prime Minister (2000-2004) - Conservative Party
  • Njall Leutwyn Jakobsen (1948), Prime Minister (2004-2005) - Independent
  • Hildebrandt Morgensen (1953), Prime Minister (2005-2008) - Conservative Party
  • Alaric Aukrust (1954), Prime Minister (2008-2009), United Labour Party
  • Eysteinn Bardalen (1950), Prime Minister (2009) - Independent
  • Hugleikrarr Eriksen (1957-2017), Prime Minister (2009-2010) - Independent
  • Theudbald Bredesen, Prime Minister (2010-2012) - Conservative Party
  • Aldwin Vlaasen (1962), Prime Minister (2012-2013) - National Liberal Party
  • Farvald Karlsen (1963), Prime Minister (2013) - Independent
  • Hulderic Eggsen (1958-2018), Prime Minister (2013-2014) - Coalition of Right Forces
  • Fulberaht Hansen-Bergen (1959), Prime Minister - Coalition of Right Forces (2014)
  • Hramnberaht Floand (1970), Prime Minister - Independent (2014)
  • Reinhardt Herlovsen (1963), Prime Minister (2014-2015) - Independent
  • Wulfgang Grongstad (1966), Prime Minister (2015) - Conservative Party
  • Berahtrand Motland (1956), Prime Minister (2015-2016) - Independent
  • Bernhardt Vigeland  (1964), Prime Minister (2016-2018) - Coalition for Jugland
  • Konrad Haageland (1959), Prime Minister (2018-2020) - Coalition of Right Forces
  • Sepp Nupekam (1951), Prime Minister (2018-2020) - Independent
  • Stian Mjosberg (1944), President of the Provisional Government (de facto head of state) - 2020
  • Eadwald Engelsaas (1949), President of the Provisional Government (de facto head of state) - 2020-2021

« Last Edit: June 09, 2021, 12:24:53 PM by paralipomena »

Offline paralipomena

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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #7 on: June 02, 2021, 06:53:21 PM »

Culture: Calendar and Traditions


The Nyaera Calendar ("New Era") calendar was established in March 2021, to replace the traditional Juglander calendar which was based in the reign of the Juglander king, as a consequence of the abolition of the Kingdom of Jugland and the establishment of the Federal Union of Jugland.

The official calendar has twelve months of 30 days, as well as five or six extra days at the end of the year known as Solnedgangarr coincidental with the Sluttenatten festivities, one of the most important religious celebrations in the Order of Werden, the largest religion in Jugland.

New Year Day is held on December 31th, the day the Federal Union of Jugland was proclaimed.

List of months
  • Frysuar (December-January)
  • Regnuar (January-February)
  • Vinduar (March)
  • Spiruar (March-April)
  • Friktuar (April-May)
  • Solember (May-June)
  • Varmember (June-July)
  • Sommember (July-August)
  • Hvetuar (August-September)
  • Bygguar (September-October)
  • Kornuar (October-November)
  • Soloppganguar (November-December)

We are currently in the 1st Year of the Nyaera.

Festivities and Holidays

Gnistendagen is a festivity, which famously includes the symbolical burning of scarecrows and fruits, related to the worshipping of the goddess Dattra and the start of the harvest season. The festivity is particularly important in Albrektberg, former capital city of the Kingdom of Jugland, as the city has the largest temple dedicated to that goddess (Early February).

Mormarrgen (sometimes translated as "Mothers' Day") is a religious festivity dedicated to the souls of the women of your family -the deceased mothers, grandmothers, great-grandmonthers, etc.- who still watch over their descendants from the Underworld. It is a festivity associated with healing, bonfires, and dancing around them (late February).

Begynnelsen is a religious festivity held around consecrated to fertility and fecundity. It is traditional to paint stones with several colours and give them as a present to beloved ones, who in turn will bury them as a promise to the Spring Goddess (March 19-21).

Dodminnen (also known as "The Festival of the Death") is a religious festivity aimed to remember Atter rebellion against the other gods of the Upperworld. It is particularly important in Briskemyr, where there is the only existing temple dedicated to Atter. It is traditional that believers burn charcoal and cover their faces with its ashes. Although it is a serious and gloomy religious festivity, in recent decades it has given space to more joyous and ironic celebrations in popular culture (late April).

Heltendag is a religious holiday consacrated to Modigin, a mythical hero (May 4th)

Midtsommerfor is the festivity held the night before Gjenfodelsatten, consacrated to the veneration of the power of the Sun. It is tradition to sacrifice a lamb at midnight in the temples consacrated to the god Verme (June 20th).

Gjenfodelsatten is a 12-day festival held around Summer solstice, the most important festivity for the followers of the Order of Werden. It conmemorates the victory of God Enno over his rival Atter and the defeat of the forces of the Underworld, bringing light and warm back to the Middle World. Besides attending the religious rites and sacrifices, Gjenfodelsatten is a time for dancing, feasting and family meetings.

Brannetten is a religious festivity consacrated to the divinities related to the Fire. Wood and leaves are typically burned nearby related temples (late July).

Vennarrukelg is religious festivity consacrated to Vennarr, Supreme Guardian of the Middle World.

Taptsjeletten is a festivity held on Autumn Equinox. It is traditional that people light candels in temples and cemeteries for those who have not surviving relatives and therefore their souls are wandering in the Underworld.

Svinnehendagen is a religious festivity related to the end of the Harvest Season. It is not celebrated nationwide, however, although it can be very important in certain regions. It is particularly related to the Wind divinities (late September).

Svartten (also known as "Black Week" or "Dark Nights") is a religious festivity consacrated to the remembrance to the dead and one's own ancestors. It is traditional to held feast and family meetings at the end of the Svartten. It is believed that is the only time in the year that souls from the Underworld can visit the Middle World (late September-early October).

Fredagsdagen ("Peace Day") is an official and secular holiday held in the anniversary of the end of the Juglander civil war on October 2020 (October 27th).

Juglandagen ("Juglander Day") is a official holiday, the National Day of the Federal Union of Jugland (November 3rd).

Constitution Day is an official holiday on the day that the current Juglander constitution was passed by the Constituent Assembly on 20 December 2020 (December 20th).

Sluttenatten, also known as "Midwinter", is a religious celebration held after the Winter solstice (late December).

Offline paralipomena

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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #8 on: June 04, 2021, 10:21:29 PM »
History: Important People of Jugland

Leobwyn I the Wise (1230-1293)
Leobwyn, a member of the House of Namnedam, was confirmed by the Royal Council to replace his father, King Hildebrandt I , being crowned as King of Jugland at the age of 31. He consolidated the military success of his father, who died only two months after the final defeat of the Csletian League. He also consolidated Jugland borders through several military campaigns while also improving the diplomatic standing of the kingdom with nearby countries.

Leobwyn was also known for his scientific interests -led him to sponsor the work of scientists, philosophers, and historians. He also is considered the author of several historical chronicles, in poetic form, which combines the narration of historical events with religious tales and folk stories with a moralizing meaning. He also funded the building of many religious temples, strengthening the political position of the Order of Werden althoug he also authored a law code which weakened the power of religious courts. His death, at the age of 63, started a period of political unstability that lasted several decades.

Mannwald I the Great (1541-1591)
Mannwald I became King of Jugland in 1579, following a long political crisis after the death of Grimwald I the same year. He was the first member of the House of Welhaven-Goltzam to become monarch, effectively starting the Welhaven-Goltzam Dinasty. He faced political and social turmoil during his reign, although he was able to external threats to the kingdom as well as introducing several administrative reforms.

He ended religious persecutions of Christians, more as a diplomatic tool on his foreign policy rather for religious or moral convictions. After a failed assassination attempt in 1584, he abolished the Royal Council, de facto turning the Kingdom of Jugland into a heriditary monarchy, a decision which would be established into law by his son, King Gerlach II.

A cult surrounding the personality of Mannwald I emerged during the monarchist restoration in early 20th century, promoted by nationalist and conservative politicians and writers. However, a more balanced and sometimes negative assessment of his reign appeared in recent decades. During his reign, it was also the last time that a Supreme Priestess of the Order of Werden was executed for violating the religious code, a controversial event which has been depicted in many literary works and films in the last decades.

Gautberaht Athanaric Bjerkesen (1570-1655)
Gautberaht Bjerkesen was a historian and politician. He was born in a noble family from Kanenheim. He served as Chancellor of the Treasury from 1628 to 1631, although he is mostly famous for writing "History of Albrektberg", a historical chronicle in which he depicted historical events from late 11th century to the reign of Gerlach II. The book is composed by fourteen volumes and more than one thousand pages, and he is considered the founder of modern historiography in Jugland. He was also considered one of the major political writers of his era.

Fredenand Undset av Hallbing (1639-1690)
Fredenand Undset av Hallbing, often known as simply Fredenand Hallbing, was a religious scholar and philosopher. He lived most of his life in Sandberg, although he lived in Albrektberg from 1681 to 1684,  serving as high magistrate in the Order of Werden. Previously, most of his career he was judge in religious courts. He wrote many religious works, being considered the most important religious scholar of the modern times. He is also is known for being the author of "Pious Legends", a group of moral tales retelling stories of Juglander mythology. He also defended the influence of the clergy on government policy in his more political writings.

« Last Edit: June 04, 2021, 11:27:33 PM by paralipomena »

Offline paralipomena

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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #9 on: June 06, 2021, 11:24:19 PM »
History: Important People of Jugland (2)

Giselmund Albrekt Vildalen av Hemarr (1720-1788)
He was writer, politician and philosopher.  In 1754, he moved to Albrektberg, where he was appointed to several state administration positions. During those years, he wrote extensively, both in official report and published works on political and economic issues, with a monarchist but modernizing view. In 1776, he joined the government as Minister of Justice, in which he attempted to reduce the role of the religious courts, and started several draft for new laws. However, most of those projects were not inconclusive. He, however, was able to gain Queen Aldegunda support to pass a law which, between other things, would abolish death penalty against the clergy for violation of their religious vows. He was dismissed in 1778. He returned to Hernstadt, his home town, where he started his project of writing a dictionary of Csletian language. After the dead of Aldegunda I in 1780, he felt out of favour and he would be arrested in 1782, expending the next five years in prison. When he was released, he was already seriously ill, and he would die a few years later.

Besides his political writings, Vildalen wrote extensively on natural philosophy and psychology. He considered that all knowledge comes from the senses and there are no innate ideas, which led to many to consider him a pioneer on materialism thinking in Jugland, despite he denied in his correspondence to be an atheist.

Gaufryda Odilia Vildalen av Hemarr (1726-1781)
Gaufryda, also known as "Fryda Vildalen", was a noblewoman and Juglander poet, Giselmund Vildalen's only sister. She married to Baron av Norebo, who was a personal friend of his brother. In 1777, the couple moved to Albrektberg, where they joined Giselmund. She became a prominent member of Queen Aldegunda's court. However, her husband would died in 1779, and she would move back to her late husband's hometown.

Her literary work would only be published posthumously, but they would be rediscovered in late 19th century. As it was typical at the time, her poetry was mostly moralizing although they have also social criticism, particularly about the role of women and hypocrisy. A collection of the collected letters between her and his brother was published in the early 20th century, becoming very popular in academic circles, in their letters, they talked about daily and family issues, but also discussed about poetry or mythology, two topics that highly interested to Gaufryda. She died in 1781, after a cholera epidemy affected the province where she lived her last years.

She was suspected to play an important role in the reform of the clergy statute enacted by her brother. However, she described priestesses in one of her poem as "slaves of fate", and she allegedly opposed that her second daughter, as it was a tradition in noble families at the time, were sent to a religious school to be ordered priestess. These aspects of her biography, as well as being reclaimed by feminists and republicans as an ideological foremother, made her controversial in early 20th century. However, since the 1990s, many schools, libraries and streets were renamed with her name.

Hramnberaht Wulfgang Sollied av Gjortzen (1739-1824), known as Hramnberaht Gjortzen
He was a philosopher and mathematician. His ideas, including support for a liberal economy, public instruction, and constitutional government made him a highly influencial author in Juglander liberalism.
Before 1790, his writings mostly focused on science, writing particularly on integral calculus. He had joined the Royal Academy of Sciences in 1782. The next year, he was requested to write a treaty on astronomy, which was funded by the state.

In 1790, he published a treaty on pedagogy, in which he defended the abolition of physical punishments. In the next years, he wrote several philosophical and political treaties, in which he started to expose his political views. After being identified as the author in a treaty published under a pseudonym, in which he criticized the absolute monarchy and defended parliamentary elections, he was expelled from the Royal Academy of Sciences. He was briefly imprisoned in 1796, and he was definitely sent to exile in 1799. He would not be allowed to return to Jugland until 1821. His works would be influential in the founding of the Liberal Party, several decades after his death.

Cynebaldina Bertha Walhafryda Hagen-Ekeberg av Tronmark (1758-1822), also known as Duchess of Tronmark
She was the only daughter of Gautberaht Hagen-Ekeberg, 6th Duke of Tronmark, who served as Chancellor of the Treasury in the reign of Wulfgang I. In 1777, she was married to Frederick Oldenburg, a Danmark national, who was at the time in a diplomatic visit to Jugland. She was 19, and her husband was 46.

The couple moved to Albion, where the Duchess would play an active role in the Copenhagen court. They had six children, but four of them died in infancy. It is believed that her son Ludvig Frederick, born in 1784, was the child of the Duchess and Hugleikrarr Kolseth, who was serving as Juglander ambassador in Danmark at the time. In Albion, she wrote "Letters to Jugland" (1782), a satirical work in which she depicted events of her own biography and Juglander history but as if she was actually describing the Albion nation. The book was misunderstood but she exposed in it some of her liberal ideas. Her husband died in 1797. She got bored about life in Danmark and returned to Jugland in 1799. She became Duchess of Tronmark after the death of his father, and she hosted a salon in Albrektberg, in which both politicians and writers often attended.

In 1801, she published under a male pseudonym a provocative novel "Bertha", in which she described a young priestess being pursued romantically by all kind of men from all social stratums of Juglander society. The novel was automatically banned by the authorities. She started to write articles under her name in a moderate newspaper, something unusual for a women in the time, mostly on literary criticism. In 1804, she published "An Outline of Juglander literature". It would be, however, her social activities which would cause her demise, as authorities started to suspect that her salon had become a source of plotting against Hughardt Ballangrud's government and she was forced to exile from Jugland. Between 1810 to 1814, already in her 50s, she visited several countries in both Alba Karinya and East Ardia. In 1815, she returned to Jugland, although she was not allowed to return to Albrektberg. In 1818 she published "On Life on Jugland", an essay which dealed with philosophical questions and description of social institutions, and a last novel, about the life of a recently married woman.

After Queen Aldegunda I, Duchess of Tronmark is considered one of the most influential women of the time. She is also considered a precursor of feminism in Jugland, although she often held contradictory views about the role of women in society. She exchanged letters with many important men, both in Jugland and abroad, including Hramnberaht Gjortzen.

Ekkehardt Lamprecht Rekdal (1764-1830)
Rekdal was born in a noble family of rather modest means from eastern Jugland. His father was a retired Lieutenant in the Royal Armed Forces. He was sent to study to Sandberg, where he studied Law, Theology, and Philosophy. He moved to Albrektberg in 1791, he moved to Albrektberg, joining the State University of Albrektberg. There, he made the acquaintance of Hramnberaht Gjortzen. He married Grimhildra Blomkvist, the daughter of a high-ranking military officer, in 1792, whom he would have seven children. During that time, he occupied himself with translating essays by foreign writers into Juglander language. He exposed some liberal ideas in his youth. However, he increasingly moved to the right in the next decades.

He is mostly remembered for his work "History of Jugland", a 10-volume national history. Many considered him as the founder of modern historiography in Jugland. In later decades, however, his political writings became more influential, considered as one of the main founders of political conservatism in Jugland. He openly supported the absolute monarchy, and his "History of Jugland" is considered by many of an epic defense of the founding of Kingdom of Jugland. In later writings, he attacked liberal authors as Gjortzen and Duchess of Tronmark, famously calling the latter to "stick to knitting" in a critical review. In 1822, he became an official advisor to King Leobwyn IV, and he was appointed to the royal parliament. He served briefly in the government under Prime Minister Fulberaht Storholt.

Offline paralipomena

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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #10 on: June 10, 2021, 07:26:22 PM »
History: Important People of Jugland (3)

Hughardt Njall Ballangrud (1770-1828)
Hughardt Ballangrud was a politician and diplomat. He served as Chancellor of the Treasury (1807-1812) and Prime Minister (1812-1820 and 1822-1826). He was instrumental in the creation of the Council of Ministers in 1811, the first national government in the Kingdom of Jugland, and the introduction of several administrative reforms aimed to modernize the state. The same year, it was also established for first time a permanent parliament, although both the government and the monarch retained a veto power over the decisions passed by the parliament.

Ballangrud also founded the Conservative Party in 1817, aimed to break the tradition of the powerful political clans. Although the Conservative Party would remain the largest political party of the parliament for the rest of the century, the influence of the clans would effectively decline only in the 1840s. Although he is remembered a stateman who helped to build a modern government in Jugland, he was strongly opposed to democracy and he opposed to further expansion of the political franchise, restricting suffrage to propertied men, who gained him the hatred of left-leaning liberals and progressive forces.

Glaedwyn Ronningen (1804-1881)
Glaedwyn Ronninger was a diplomat and politician. His grandfather was a high-ranking military officer in the Juglander army. He moved to Albrektberg in 1824, where he started a brief career as journalist and wrote for several literary magazines as well. He started a career of diplomat in 1833, serving as ambassador in East Moreland and Eskdale. He returned to Jugland in 1840, and in 1842 he was elected to the parliament in the northwestern district of Nordheim. He served briefly as Minister of Education in Theudbald Pettersen's government from 1844 to 1845, but he was forced to resign as his reforms aimed to expand public schools over religious ones did not find the support of the monarch. He would remain a member of the parliament until his death, in 1881.

In 1848, he founded -along with another three members of the parliament-, the Liberal Party, aimed to strengthen the powers of the parliament over the government, consolidate the constitutional monarchy in Jugland, and as well as expanding the male suffrage at least to the middle classes. On economy, Ronningen defended free trade over protectionist policies. He would remain leader of the Liberal Party until 1872.

He was appointed Prime Minister in 1868, forming the first Liberal Party government in Jugland. However, the government lacked enough support in the parliament, and failed to pass important reforms. He was dismissed by King Mannwald III, being replaced by his arch-rival Reinhardt Ballangrud. However, as leader of the opposition he played an important role to achieve the 1864 reform, which expanded suffrage to nearby half of the male population.

Ronningen married twice and he had eight children. His son Albrekt Herewardt served as Minister of Public Works in Braekhus second government (1884-1886), while his great-grandson Grimwald served as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1906 to 1916.

Reinhardt Walhafryd Ballangrud av Bakkerod (1811-1881)
Reinhardt Ballangrud was a politician and diplomat. He was the second Duke of Bakkerod. He served as Prime Minister three times (1846-1855, 1856-1864, and 1871-1876). He was the second son of Hughardt Njall Ballangrud. Reinhardt Ballangrud was elected to the parliament in 1840 at the age of only 29 years old, and following the retirement of Hermann Snorr Hakonsen, he became the leader of the Conservative Party in 1844. He was appointed Prime Minister by King Mannwald III. During his first government, the Charter of Amvkhar was sanctioned, and the Principality of Emrta was established.

In his second government, he consolidated the power of the Conservative Party, effectively ended the influence of the political clans, which had dominated Jugland’s politics since the 18th-century, and which led him to create the Conservative Party.

After the death of Mannwald III in 1875, he failed to gain the confidence of the new monarch, Hramnberaht II, and he would be dismissed as Prime Minister in late 1876. Although he remained as leader of the Conservative Party, his influence declined after 1878, and he did not run for reelection in 1881, retiring from politics. He would die only a few months later, in his native home.

Although he headed the government more years than his father, he struggled to keep the Conservative Party united amid many internal factions. In order to mantain in power, particularly in his second and third governments, he was forced to offer many concessions to both the conservative and moderate factions of the parliament, including the 1875 electoral reform.

Fulberaht Eysteinn Sognnaes (1812-1878)
He was a writer, politician and political thinker. Sognnaes was born in the nobility, but he soon showed a passion for liberal and progressive ideas. He was elected to the parliament in 1849, and joined the Liberal Party. However, he soon became disillusioned about the compromises by Ronningen and the other Liberal Party members. He was one of the founders of the Democratic Party in 1854, although he failed to be reelected to the parliament in 1860. In 1861, he moved back to this native town in northeastern Jugland. There, he continued publishing books, mostly on history, political theory, as well as his memoirs, published posthumously in 1880.

His political ideas evolved from liberalism in his youth to increasingly left-leaning, toward radical democracy and, in his last years, adopting a form of socialism. His parliamentary experienced caused him to dislike liberalism and middle-class values, and he sought authenticity among the peasants, something he was close to achieve in his rural retirement in his last years.

In his final writings, he promoted both socialism and individualism, supported a form of agrarian socialism, in which capitalism would be replaced by small-scale communal living with the protection of individual liberty and a socialist government mostly in charge to protect order and promote cooperatives. He, however, rejected revolutionary socialism.

After his death, there was a great interest in his ideas, and his books were very popular in democratic circles and between the workers movement. However, in the 20th century, his influence declined, as his ideas started to be seen as archaic and obsolete by the largest left-wing and socialist political parties and authors. Although in recent decades there was a growing interests in his writings, mostly in academic circles.

Adalwynda Naess-Schjelderup, a current Juglander politicial and member of the National Assembly, is a distant descendant of Sognnaes.

Lamprecht Braekhus (1809-1898)
Braekhus was a writer and politician, leader of the Liberal Party from 1872 to 1894. He was Prime Minister twice, from 1876 to 1880 and from 1884 to 1886. He also served as minister from 1868 to 1871, during Ronningen's Liberal government.

Braekhus joined the army but retired in 1842, after he suffered a wound that caused him to lose his left arm. During the next years, he travelled through Coft Aranye, Alba Karinya, and Northern Ardia, writing several travel books, which became relatively popular at the time in Jugland. He realized about the growing gap between Jugland and many countries, and became a determined reformer, aimed to the modernization of the country. Although he had admired Rekdal's writings in his youth, he moved to the left in his 30s, although he was not a radical. Braekhus gained the confidence of Ronningen, after the former joined the parliament in 1847. Although he was not one of the founders of the Liberal Party, he officially became a member in 1859. He served in Ronningen's administration (1868 and 1871) and replaced Ronningen as leader of the Liberal Party in 1872.

Unlike Ronninger, Braekhus was not shy to publicize his own ideas. In the 1850s and 1860s, he published several books -most of them, collection of essays that he published in liberal and moderate newspapers, exposing his ideas. He tried to convince the public, and in particular the cultural and economic elite, of the need of important reforms for the development of the monarchy and the advancement of the science required for such task. He was not shy in his defense of a constitutional government for Jugland. He, however decried revolution and always worked in the framework of the Juglander monarchy.

Although his governments were able to pass more reforms than the first Liberal government, he faced increasingly social turmoil and political division, particularly during his second government (1884-1886). Although the several electoral reforms increased the influence of the Liberal Party in the parliament, it also mobilized more radical groups which demanded democracy and political rights. Already in his 70s, Braekhus was seen as part of the political establishment, and his younger left-leaning political rivals had not the patience that the Liberals demanded. His government's ban of public political meetings in 1886, led to violent crash between the militarized police and supporters of the Menneskarr Movement, which defended democratic and republican ideas, resulted in more than fifty casualties in Albrektberg. Two weeks after, he was forced to resign. He continued as leader of the Liberal Party until 1894.

Hildebrandt Wyne Holman (1812-1875)
Hildebrandt W. Holman was a philosopher and political thinker. He was born in Morkhaven, a small town nearby Amvkhar. His grandfather and his father were religious magistrates. He graduated in Law in Amvkhar and moved to Albrektberg in 1836, where he continued his studies in Philosophy and Natural Science. In Albrektberg, he joined republican circles. However, in 1841 he moved back to Amvkhar, where he married Albyna Hareide. In 1847, he started to write for a local liberal newspaper. In 1849, he was offered to be correspondent for the newspaper -he initially wrote literary reviews-, and lived abroad until 1854.

When he returned to Jugland, he felt disappointed about the political climate and the lack of initiatives of both the Liberal Party and the democratic groups. He was fired from the newspaper after he wrote an article criticizing the monarchy. By that time, Holman was not only a republican but, influenced by foreign authors, also a socialist. He met Sognnaes in 1856, although Holman was rather disappointed about the meeting (Sognnaes did not mention Holman in his memoirs, although he negatively reviewed a book pubished by Holman a few years later). Unlike Sognnaes, Holmas justified revolutionary action to achieve socialism. Holman kept contact with members of the Democratic Party, although he was never a member.

Holman considered history a product of the struggle of races, nation, and classes. He was familiarized with Marxist literature and he was sympathetic toward communism but considered that same factors would operated under socialism. He was forced to exile in 1869, after one of his books was banned by the authorities and a legal process against him was initiated for "promoting immorality" and "corrupting the mind of the youth". He would never return to Jugland, and he would die in 1875.

« Last Edit: June 10, 2021, 09:03:37 PM by paralipomena »

Offline paralipomena

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Re: Factbook of Jugland
« Reply #11 on: June 11, 2021, 03:25:52 PM »
History: Important People of Jugland (4)

Hrodgarr Ortwyn Northug (1822-1898)
Hrodgarr Northug was a writer and theologian. He graduated on Natural Sciences and Theology in Nordheim. He moved to Albrektberg where he continued his religious studies and in 1859, he would become Klok or religious magistrate. In the 1860s and 1870s, he achieved notoriety as a polemicist, for his articles written in his brother's newspaper. He became a close advisor of Prime Minister Hughardt Grimseth in 1880 and joined Baldwyn Solberg-Hakomsen's government in 1881-1883, where he tried to revert many reforms of the previous Liberal governments.

In 1884, he joined the Royal Juglander Academy Sciences. He continued concerned about political affairs, however, and he continued to write in conservative newspapers about political issues. His most famous work was "Elements of Theology", in which he denounced both secularism and atheism. He was a monarchist, although he became disillusioned about the political future of Jugland in his last years. He published "Thoughts on the Past, the Present, and the Future" (1894), his last works, which was later considered prophetic in conservative circles in early 20th century, in which he denounced democracy, liberalism, and socialism, and called to roll back to an absolute monarchy as form of government. He ended convinced that constitutional government inevitably leads to a socialist state. Controversially, however, he also proposed to restore elective monarchy.

Grimwald Hagen (1828-1889)
Grimwald Hagen was a journalist, writer, and politician. His family moved to Emrta in 1844. He graduated in Natural Sciences and Philosophy in the Royal College of Amvkhar. However, he was not interested in academic life. Instead, he started a career as journalist, writing for several liberal newspapers. He also published poems in literary reviews.

In 1859, he joined the Democratic Party. He was heavily influenced by Fulberaht Eysteinn Sognnaes, promoting agrarian collectivism and radical liberalism. He was elected to the parliament in 1864, being reelected in 1865, 1868, 1871, 1875. He was the leader of the Democratic Party from 1866 to 1878. Although he was a virulent polemicist, as Sognnaes, he also opposed the idea of a violent revolution.

Although he continued to publish books and articles on political theory and history, his influence in the Democratic Party declined in his last years, particularly after the creatio nof the Federation of Communist Workers, the first Marxist political party in Jugland, in 1884, which was joined by some of the most radical members of the Democratic Party, and the creation of the Socialist Party one year after his death. In the decade after his death, the Democratic Party would move toward a more liberal-progressive orientation.

During the short-lived Republic of Jugland, he was venerated as a forefather of the first republican government in modern Jugland, and many statues were built in his memory. However, most of them did not survive after the monarchy was restored in 1906. In his lifetime, Hagen gained respect, even by some of his enemies, for his oratory skills and the vivid style of his historical and political books. However, his popularity declined in the following decades, as his historical writings started to be seen as political pamphlets, while his political ideas were seen as either unpractical or obsolete.

Waramund Gerhnod Bjork (1832-1918)
Waramund Bjork was born in southwestern Jugland. He came from a family of middle-class landowners. His father was a leading Juglander literary critic and historian. In his youth, he was heavily influenced by his uncle Ekkehardt Othmarr, who was a member of the Liberal Party and served as minister from 1868 to 1871. He moved to Albrektberg in 1851, where he enrolled in the Royal College of Albrektberg, where he studied Law and accounting. Unwilling to continue with the family business back home, he moved to Sandberg in 1856, where he started to work in the public administration.

Meanwhile, he started to publish articles on Juglander history and social sciences. In Sandberg, he started to gain reputation as a lecturer in public conferences, where he often discussed economic ideas. He was a sympathizer of the Liberal Party, supporting a constitutional monarchy as ideal form of government. However, he disliked the free-trade theories defended by the leaders of the Liberal Party. Bjork promoted a protectionist economic policy as the only way to develop Jugland and build a prosperous national industry.

He moved to Albrektberg in 1873. He was professor of Administration and Political Ideas in the Royal College of Albrektberg from 1874 to 1877. In 1879, he joined the Ministry of Finance. He was promoted as ministerial under-secretary in 1886. In 1898, he served for six months as Minister of Administration and Public Works in Fredenand Kjelling's government, which included both members of the Conservative and Liberal parties.

During his time in Albrektberg, Bjork was briefly interested in socialist literature. However, he ended rejecting socialism as he considered that it was not a very practical political ideology. Bjork was a nationalist, promoting both economic protectionism and national self-interest. He felt that economic theories were too abstract, as they failed to consider that it was the nation and the family the base of an economy, not the individual or the humanity as a whole.

Bjork was not involved politically in the end of the monarchy and the establishment of a republican government in 1901. After his time as minister, he had returned to Sandberg. During that time, he seemed to be mostly concerning in researching in his book about the economic history of Jugland, which would eventually published in 1917. He did not support any political party at the time.

However, in 1905 he returned to Albrektberg, where he served as Minister of Finance for sixteen months. He attempted to estabilize the economy, but he failed to do so as he struggled to deal with the increasing political tensions, a growing wave of strikes, as well as the effects of the radical agrarian reform enforced by the previous republican government. In 1906 he moved to Sandberg. Two months later, the Republic of Jugland would collapse following a coup d'etat. Bjork was arrested in 1907 but he would be released two months later.

Gautberaht Hermann Lillefjell (1848-1921)
Gautberaht Lillefjell was a writer and social reformer. He was born in a wealthy family. He moved abroad in 1868 where he enrolled in several universities. He returned to Jugland in 1874, where he did a doctorate in law. He is considered one of the founders of sociology in Jugland, publishing many scientific articles and books. He moved to Amvkhar in 1879. He was professor of Social Science in the Royal College of Amvkhar from 1881 to 1894.

During the monarchy, Lillefjell was a sympathizer of the Liberal Party, although he was never involved politically. He funded and created several schools in both Emrta and his native town. He served as Minister of Education in Godehardt Kraggerud's government in 1895-1896. During the Republic of Jugland, he would be elected to the national parliament in 1902, as the candidate of a moderate party. He joined the government as Minister of Trade 1903, although he was only two months in office, as the government collapsed and it was replaced by a more radical republican government.

He was not active politically in the last years of the republic and the first year of the monarchy, although he was appointed Minister of Education in 1914, being the only person to have served as ministers in the reign of Godric IV, the Republic of Jugland and the reign of Theudbald again. He left the government in 1917, and he returned to Amvkhar, where he would die.

Sigeweard Lovoll (1852-1914)
Sigeweard Lovoll was a lawyer, politician, and socialist activist, known for being the founder of the Socialist Party.

Lovoll studied in the universities of Kaninheim and Sandberg. From 1876 and 1881, he worked as a lawyer for a law firm in Hunnund, western Jugland. He moved to Albrektberg, where he started his political career. He was elected to the parliament in 1884 as a candidate of the Democratic Party, although he was not reelected. His opposition with the leadership of the Democratic Party would increase until 1887, when Lovell and several of his supporters would be expelled from the Democratic Party.

In 1890, he founded the Socialist Party, which was joined by a large number of Democratic Party members. The Socialist Party, however, although it had an increasing growth of members in the next decade, it failed to be politically relevant, and it had only one member in the parliament when it was dissolved in 1900. He was a member of the parliament during the Republic of Jugland. After the fall of the republic, he would be arrested and sentenced to ten years of imprisonment. He was, however, released in 1912. He continued as leader of the Socialist Party until 1914, although his leadership had a mostly honorary role since 1908.

During his lifetime, particularly from 1890 to his death, Lovoll was the most famous and influencial socialist author in Jugland. He published many books and articles on socialist theory as well as political pamphlets. However, more scholars consider him as a popularizer of the ideas of others rather than an innovator. He supported the idea of a peaceful and bloodless revolution, although the Socialist Party was rather surprised with the end of the monarchy in 1901, and they had a rather limited role during the Republic of Jugland (1901-1906). In 1904, the Socialist Party obtained 24 seats, their best result, and they never joined the government during the republic.

Unlike Marxist authors, Lovell rejected the idea that socialism would imply the eventual abolition of the state, and considered the state as an independent political entity, a necessary instrument for the achievement and protection of a socialist classless society.

The Socialist Party would be banned in 1906, and it remained an underground organization until 1931, when it was allowed to register as a legal political party again. However, the membership of the Socialist Party had declined in the 1920s, and Lovell's ideas and books had a much more limited influence after his death.

Adelmarr Hughardt Ostensen (1864-1914)
Adelmarr Ostensen was a historian and politician, who played an important role in the last years of the monarchy and the republican period.

He studied in the State University of Albrektberg, where he graduated in law. In 1891, at the age of 27, he published his first book on Medieval Jugland. He was elected to the parliament in 1895 as a candidate of the Liberal Party. Unlike other politicians from the Liberal Party, he did not oppose the abolition of the monarchy in 1901 (although he had not publically supported republican ideas in the past either). He served as Minister of Justice in the first republican government. In the 1901 legislative election, he was elected to the parliament as an independent candidate. He joined the Democratic Party in 1902, and he served as Minister of War in 1904-1905 in the so-called radical republican government. After that, he left the Democratic Party and created his own political party, the Republican Liberal Party. Although the Republican Liberal Party only obtained 20 seats, he was appointed President of the national government in late 1905, although his government only lasted three months.

The 1906 coup d'etat that ended the Republic of Jugland surprised him in Sandberg. He immediately fled the country. He was allowed to return to Jugland in 1912. He would not be involved in politics again and he started to write his memoirs, but death surprised him in early 1914.

During the Republic of Jugland, Ostensen was considered a moderate, and he was strongly opposed socialism, although he was a pragmatist and negotiated with radical republican leaders when he needed to achieve his political objectives, which caused him to be extensively despised by conservative and right-wing sectors. Historians, as well as the public in general, are divided between those who consider him a stateman and those who consider him mostly an opportunist.